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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-02-22 10:50:16 UTC
Update Date2020-10-09 21:02:02 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001858
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0013762
  • HMDB01858
  • HMDB13762
Metabolite Identification
Common Namep-Cresol
Descriptionp-Cresol (4-methylphenol), a 108.1 Da volatile low-molecular-weight compound, is a phenol. It is a partially lipophilic moiety which strongly binds to plasma protein (close to 100%) under normal conditions. p-Cresol is metabolized through conjugation, mainly sulphation and glucuronization, but removal of the unconjugated p-cresol is, at least in part, via the urine. Therefore it is not surprising that this compound, together with several other phenoles, is retained when the kidneys fail. P-Cresol is an end-product of protein breakdown, and an increase of the nutritional protein load in healthy individuals results in enhanced generation and urinary excretion. The serum p-cresol concentration in uremic patients can be decreased by changing to a low-protein diet. p-Cresol is one of the metabolites of the amino acid tyrosine, and to a certain extent also of phenylalanine, which are converted to 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid by intestinal bacteria, before being decarboxylated to p-cresol (putrefaction). The main contributing bacteria are aerobes (mainly enterobacteria), but to a certain extent also anaerobes play a role (mainly Clostridium perfringens). In uremia, modifications in the intestinal flora result in the specific overgrowth of bacteria that are specific p-cresol producers. The administration of antibiotics reduces urinary excretion of p-cresol, as a result of the liquidation of the producing bacteria. Environmental factors might also contribute. The liver cytochrome P450 metabolizes toluene to benzyl alcohol, but also to o-cresol and p-cresol. Toluene is not only used industrially, but it is also the most widely abusively inhaled solvent. Furthermore, p-cresol is a metabolite of menthofuran, one of the metabolites of R-(+)-pulegone, which is found in extracts from the plants Mentha pulegium and Hedeoma pulegioides, commonly known as pennyroyal oil and pennyroyal tea. These extracts are popular as unconventional herbal therapeutic agents and are applied as abortiva, diaphoretics, emmenagogues, and psychedelic drugs. Pennyroyal oil is extensively used for its pleasant mint-like smell in the flavoring industry. The toxicity of pennyroyal oil and menthofuran is well known. Another compound used in traditional medicine, especially in Japan, which is a precursor of p-cresol is wood tar creosote. p-Cresol has been reported to affect several biochemical, biological and physiological functions: (i) it diminishes the oxygen uptake of rat cerebral cortex slices; (ii) it increases the free active drug concentration of warfarin and diazepam; (iii) it has been related to growth retardation in the weanling pig; (iv) it alters cell membrane permeability, at least in bacteria; (v) it induces LDH leakage from rat liver slices; (vi) it induces susceptibility to auditive epileptic crises; and (vii) it blocks cell K+ channels. (PMID: 10570076 ). p-Cresol is a uremic toxin that is at least partially removed by peritoneal dialysis in haemodialysis patients, and has been involved in the progression of renal failure. (PMID: 11169029 ). At concentrations encountered during uremia, p-cresol inhibits phagocyte function and decreases leukocyte adhesion to cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells. (PMID: 14681860 ). p-Cresol can be found in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Enterobacter and Lactobacillus (PMID: 2394806 ; PMID: 30208103 ). As a volatile organic compound, it has been identified as a fecal biomarker of Clostridium difficile infection (PMID: 30986230 ). 
Structure
Data?1601251153
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzeneChEBI
4-CresolChEBI
4-HydroxytolueneChEBI
4-MethylphenolChEBI
p-KresolChEBI
p-MethylphenolChEBI
p-Tolyl alcoholChEBI
ParacresolChEBI
1-Methyl-4-hydroxybenzeneHMDB
4-(Pentafluorosulfanyl)phenolHMDB
4-Methyl phenolHMDB
4-Methyl-phenolHMDB
p-CresylateHMDB
p-Cresylic acidHMDB
p-HydroxytolueneHMDB
p-Methyl phenolHMDB
p-MethylhydroxybenzeneHMDB
p-OxytolueneHMDB
p-ToluolHMDB
Paramethyl phenolHMDB
4-Cresol, potassium saltHMDB
m-CresolHMDB
4-Cresol, aluminum saltHMDB
4-Cresol, sodium saltHMDB
Para-cresolHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H8O
Average Molecular Weight108.1378
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight108.057514878
IUPAC Name4-methylphenol
Traditional NameP-cresol
CAS Registry Number106-44-5
SMILES
CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H8O/c1-6-2-4-7(8)5-3-6/h2-5,8H,1H3
InChI KeyIWDCLRJOBJJRNH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as para cresols. Para cresols are compounds containing a para cresol moiety, which consists of a benzene ring bearing one hydroxyl group at ring positions 1 and 4.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenols
Sub ClassCresols
Direct ParentPara cresols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • P-cresol
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Toluene
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point35.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility21.5 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP1.94HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility23.1 g/LALOGPS
logP1.95ALOGPS
logP2.18ChemAxon
logS-0.67ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.36ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity33.08 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.93 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-1d2bdfde621a5af9be73Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-b76093f53701327ab25fSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-4900000000-7d25deb1e39c6ef4866fSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-7900000000-15d473146e11e4b049b2Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-4900000000-14fef90a661a09457976Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-1d2bdfde621a5af9be73Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-b76093f53701327ab25fSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-4900000000-7d25deb1e39c6ef4866fSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-7900000000-15d473146e11e4b049b2Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-4900000000-14fef90a661a09457976Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-6900000000-27534de20ade11dd5454Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-06fr-9700000000-f41dd95ca553de6bafffSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - NA 35V, negativesplash10-0a6u-9600000000-276b44cbbdb079cac718Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-ab55ada5cae0538f383eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-385a7a99e0409c7f060dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-02tl-9000000000-205f4e5245868e9debccSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (VARIAN MAT-44) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-5900000000-fd438231ac0ed75fdf09Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-5900000000-b76093f53701327ab25fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-D-3000) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-4900000000-7d25deb1e39c6ef4866fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-7900000000-0cdab17a1a95f3e65f45Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-0c45920f40546c2d8944Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-417774c01b748db1609dSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9600000000-5583b6dc3ae583b8dab0Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-cf0bed2b3a203309d9aaSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-1900000000-4f20c8bd2dde845b499cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0fb9-9100000000-393b5f734646352622f9Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-6900000000-729e6f5bdb0da3ed9dedSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Fibroblasts
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot Available
Normal
      Not Available
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.556 +/- 9.259 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified720500.448-3063806.859 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified72595.645 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified41363.889 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified52827.658 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified136.585 +/- 69.263 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified95.249 +/- 98.948 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.6 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified24.7 (1.2-110.7) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified46.0 (1.2-118.9) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified23.0 (11.4-114.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.13 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified52.6 (38.8-71.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.933 +/- 2.099 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified9.9 +/- 5.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHemodialysis details
BloodDetected and Quantified186.111 +/- 95.370 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Uremia
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Campylobacter jejuni infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-3012051.907 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) non progressor details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) progressor details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Intestinal infections
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)BothPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn's disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Crohn's disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.00197 (0.000166-0.00543) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.00204 (0.00108-0.00888) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.00461 (0.00106-0.0113) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Crohns disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Diarrhea-predominant IBS
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.14 +/- 2.998 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hemodialysis
  1. De Smet R, Van Kaer J, Liebich H, Lesaffer G, Verstraete A, Dhondt A, Duym P, Lameire N, Vanholder R: Heparin-induced release of protein-bound solutes during hemodialysis is an in vitro artifact. Clin Chem. 2001 May;47(5):901-9. [PubMed:11325895 ]
Uremia
  1. Vanholder R, De Smet R, Glorieux G, Argiles A, Baurmeister U, Brunet P, Clark W, Cohen G, De Deyn PP, Deppisch R, Descamps-Latscha B, Henle T, Jorres A, Lemke HD, Massy ZA, Passlick-Deetjen J, Rodriguez M, Stegmayr B, Stenvinkel P, Tetta C, Wanner C, Zidek W: Review on uremic toxins: classification, concentration, and interindividual variability. Kidney Int. 2003 May;63(5):1934-43. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00924.x. [PubMed:12675874 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Garner CE, Smith S, de Lacy Costello B, White P, Spencer R, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM: Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. FASEB J. 2007 Jun;21(8):1675-88. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314143 ]
  2. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
  3. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
  4. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
Irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
  2. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
Celiac disease
  1. Di Cagno R, De Angelis M, De Pasquale I, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, Ricciuti P, Gagliardi F, Laghi L, Crecchio C, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Oct 4;11:219. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219. [PubMed:21970810 ]
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  1. Raman M, Ahmed I, Gillevet PM, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM, Smith S, Greenwood R, Sikaroodi M, Lam V, Crotty P, Bailey J, Myers RP, Rioux KP: Fecal microbiome and volatile organic compound metabolome in obese humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jul;11(7):868-75.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.02.015. Epub 2013 Feb 27. [PubMed:23454028 ]
Diarrhoea predominant irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello Bde L, Ratcliffe NM, Probert CS: An investigation of fecal volatile organic metabolites in irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58204. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058204. Epub 2013 Mar 13. [PubMed:23516449 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
  2. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
Autism
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Enteritis
  1. Probert CS, Jones PR, Ratcliffe NM: A novel method for rapidly diagnosing the causes of diarrhoea. Gut. 2004 Jan;53(1):58-61. [PubMed:14684577 ]
Clostridium difficile infection
  1. Patel M, Fowler D, Sizer J, Walton C: Faecal volatile biomarkers of Clostridium difficile infection. PLoS One. 2019 Apr 15;14(4):e0215256. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215256. eCollection 2019. [PubMed:30986230 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Colorectal cancer
  1. Cheng Y, Xie G, Chen T, Qiu Y, Zou X, Zheng M, Tan B, Feng B, Dong T, He P, Zhao L, Zhao A, Xu LX, Zhang Y, Jia W: Distinct urinary metabolic profile of human colorectal cancer. J Proteome Res. 2012 Feb 3;11(2):1354-63. doi: 10.1021/pr201001a. Epub 2011 Dec 28. [PubMed:22148915 ]
  2. Ni Y, Xie G, Jia W: Metabonomics of human colorectal cancer: new approaches for early diagnosis and biomarker discovery. J Proteome Res. 2014 Sep 5;13(9):3857-70. doi: 10.1021/pr500443c. Epub 2014 Aug 14. [PubMed:25105552 ]
  3. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01688
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB008789
KNApSAcK IDC00002645
Chemspider ID13839082
KEGG Compound IDC01468
BioCyc IDCPD-108
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkP-cresol
METLIN ID4236
PubChem Compound2879
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17847
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDPCRESOL
MarkerDB IDMDB00000347
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
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