You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:30 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:23:41 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0015347
  • HMDB01984
  • HMDB15347
Metabolite Identification
Common NameFinasteride
DescriptionFinasteride is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. Finasteride is an androgen antagonist. It is an orally active testosterone 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor. Finasteride is one of the currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia. The mechanism of action has not been fully determined, but finasteride has shown to decrease scalp DHT concentration to the levels found in hairy scalp, reduce serum DHT, increase hair regrowth, and slow hair loss. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or male pattern hair loss, affects approximately 50% of the male population. AGA is an androgen-related condition in genetically predisposed individuals. There is no treatment to completely reverse AGA in advanced stages, but with medical treatment (e.g. finasteride), the progression can be arrested and partly reversed in the majority of patients who have mild to moderate AGA. Finasteride is also used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (PubChem). The mechanism of action of finasteride is based on its preferential inhibition of type II 5alpha-reductase through the formation of a stable complex with the enzyme. Inhibition of type II 5alpha-reductase blocks the peripheral conversion of testosterone to DHT (resulting in significant decreases in serum and tissue DHT concentrations), minimal to moderate increase in serum testosterone concentrations, and substantial increases in prostatic testosterone concentrations. As DHT appears to be the principal androgen responsible for stimulation of prostatic growth, a decrease in DHT concentrations will result in a decrease in prostatic volume (approximately 20-30% after 6-24 months of continued therapy). Finasteride may increase the sensitivity of prostate specific antigen to detect prostate cancer. At present, finasteride remains the only intervention shown in long-term prospective phase III clinical trials to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer (PMID: 18044109 , 17543725 , 17414641 , 17415094 , 17394699 ).
Chibro proscarHMDB
Merck brand 1 OF finasterideHMDB
Merck brand 2 OF finasterideHMDB
Cahill may roberts brand OF finasterideHMDB
Lipha brand OF finasterideHMDB
Merck frosst brand 1 OF finasterideHMDB
Frosst iberica brand OF finasterideHMDB
MSD Chibropharm brand OF finasterideHMDB
Merck sharp and dohme brand 1 OF finasterideHMDB
MSD Brand OF finasterideHMDB
Merck frosst brand 2 OF finasterideHMDB
Merck sharp and dhome brand 2 OF finasterideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC23H36N2O2
Average Molecular Weight372.5441
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight372.277678406
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,7R,10S,11S,14S,15S)-N-tert-butyl-2,15-dimethyl-5-oxo-6-azatetracyclo[^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-3-ene-14-carboxamide
Traditional Name(1S,2R,7R,10S,11S,14S,15S)-N-tert-butyl-2,15-dimethyl-5-oxo-6-azatetracyclo[^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-3-ene-14-carboxamide
CAS Registry Number98319-26-7
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as androgens and derivatives. These are 3-hydroxylated C19 steroid hormones. They are known to favor the development of masculine characteristics. They also show profound effects on scalp and body hair in humans.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassAndrostane steroids
Direct ParentAndrogens and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • 20-hydroxysteroid
  • Androgen-skeleton
  • 3-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 4-azasteroid
  • Azasteroid
  • Cyclic carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point252 - 254 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.002 g/LNot Available
LogP3.03HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.002 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.2 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity108.2 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability43.96 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-1579000000-3a73a92e1d34b87c3e4cSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0a4i-5910000000-7dd7b7fbb29b6ae08f4cSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0ab9-1319000000-9f18f09bea4e9168f1dfSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-5900000000-3ad6a0d10c51f9892144Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-0119000000-f683db304300c01e907aSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-0129000000-a097bfd2187d4d4c97c6Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-00xr-0119000000-43c6646bf19d62255966Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-01b9-2539000000-c47506144391db372c4bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-a55cf309ee5a976c5e45Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0009000000-a6be7718311b4f11aad5Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0zmi-0439000000-e0a2fad4c18c6da72e1cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uej-3790000000-df2f90aa3664e0df8776Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0009000000-be3980c97e5b8f8767a6Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-3029000000-5489b391a47dec8eb0f1Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00dl-9131000000-a1b8897126899f67f5fbSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01216
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022782
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID51714
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkFinasteride
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound57363
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID5062
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferencePeng, Dongming; Huang, Kelong; Liu, Yanfei. Improved synthesis of finasteride. Zhongguo Yaowu Huaxue Zazhi (2005), 15(5), 288-290.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Trueb RM: Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair. Clin Interv Aging. 2006;1(2):121-9. [PubMed:18044109 ]
  2. Otberg N, Finner AM, Shapiro J: Androgenetic alopecia. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007 Jun;36(2):379-98. [PubMed:17543725 ]
  3. Lin AM, Small EJ: Prostate cancer update: 2006. Curr Opin Oncol. 2007 May;19(3):229-33. [PubMed:17414641 ]
  4. Dunn BK, Ford LG: Hormonal interventions to prevent hormonal cancers: breast and prostate cancers. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007 Jun;16(3):232-42. [PubMed:17415094 ]
  5. Thorpe JF, Jain S, Marczylo TH, Gescher AJ, Steward WP, Mellon JK: A review of phase III clinical trials of prostate cancer chemoprevention. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2007 Apr;89(3):207-11. [PubMed:17394699 ]
  6. Smith AB, Carson CC: Finasteride in the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a review. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2009 Jun;5(3):535-45. Epub 2009 Jul 12. [PubMed:19707263 ]
  7. Suzuki R, Satoh H, Ohtani H, Hori S, Sawada Y: Saturable binding of finasteride to steroid 5alpha-reductase as determinant of nonlinear pharmacokinetics. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2010;25(2):208-13. [PubMed:20460827 ]


General function:
Involved in 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Converts testosterone into 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone and progesterone or corticosterone into their corresponding 5-alpha-3-oxosteroids. It plays a central role in sexual differentiation and androgen physiology.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight: