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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:37 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:23:50 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02121
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCarnosol
DescriptionCarnosol is a naturally occurring phenolic diterpene found in rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis, Labiatae). It has been known that an extract of rosemary leaves contains high antioxidative activity. Ninety percent of this antioxidative activity can be attributed to carnosol and carnosic acid. Carnosic acid is easily converted to carnosol by oxidation. Carnosol has multiple beneficial medicinal effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activities in various disease models. Carnosol may possess important neuroprotective effects against rotenone-induced DA neuronal damage. Naturally occurring antioxidants reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, carnosol and carnosic acid promoted the synthesis of nerve growth factor in glial cells. Carnosol-mediated neuroprotection in DA neurons is involved in the attenuation of caspase-3 activity, which was induced by rotenone. Furthermore, carnosol-mediated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) increase, which is dependent on the Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling pathway, is responsible for the neuroprotection in SN4741 DA cells. (PMID: 17047462 ). Carnosol, a phenolic diterpene compound of the labiate herbs rosemary and sage, is an activator of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a ligand activated transcription factor, belonging to the metazoan family of nuclear hormone receptors. Activation of PPARgamma increases the transcription of enzymes involved in primary metabolism, leading to lower blood levels of fatty acids and glucose. Hence, PPARgamma represents the major target for the glitazone type of drugs currently being used clinically for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (PMID: 16858665 ).
Chemical FormulaC20H26O4
Average Molecular Weight330.424
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight330.183109317
IUPAC Name(1R,8S,10S)-3,4-dihydroxy-11,11-dimethyl-5-(propan-2-yl)-16-oxatetracyclo[¹,¹⁰.0²,⁷]hexadeca-2,4,6-trien-15-one
Traditional Name(1R,8S,10S)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-isopropyl-11,11-dimethyl-16-oxatetracyclo[¹,¹⁰.0²,⁷]hexadeca-2,4,6-trien-15-one
CAS Registry Number5957-80-2
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diterpene lactones. These are diterpenoids containing a lactone moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassTerpene lactones
Direct ParentDiterpene lactones
Alternative Parents
  • Diterpene lactone
  • Diterpenoid
  • Phenanthrene
  • Benzopyran
  • Isochromane
  • 2-benzopyran
  • Tetralin
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Delta valerolactone
  • Delta_valerolactone
  • Benzenoid
  • Oxane
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:

Biological location:



Naturally occurring process:


Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.04 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.19ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity91.43 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability36.43 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00s9-6098000000-26001744db43187e05efSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0159-2000900000-f32732b369e071f050f3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0019000000-08dcb84c59b0d280b13fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001r-6097000000-b2894527af41d8c29ad8Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-067l-9041000000-63e8a7af26ccd9f942f7Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0009000000-a5b241b8344c36c2f0bfSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0019000000-e7accf1a4d2c8280c2f4Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-03y0-1093000000-a5175230ca7dfd038446Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB014814
KNApSAcK IDC00003410
Chemspider ID390568
KEGG Compound IDC09069
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCarnosol
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound442009
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID468005
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceLuxenburger, Andreas. The synthesis of carnosol derivatives. Tetrahedron (2003), 59(18), 3297-3305
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Kim SJ, Kim JS, Cho HS, Lee HJ, Kim SY, Kim S, Lee SY, Chun HS: Carnosol, a component of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) protects nigral dopaminergic neuronal cells. Neuroreport. 2006 Nov 6;17(16):1729-33. [PubMed:17047462 ]
  2. Rau O, Wurglics M, Paulke A, Zitzkowski J, Meindl N, Bock A, Dingermann T, Abdel-Tawab M, Schubert-Zsilavecz M: Carnosic acid and carnosol, phenolic diterpene compounds of the labiate herbs rosemary and sage, are activators of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Planta Med. 2006 Aug;72(10):881-7. Epub 2006 Jul 20. [PubMed:16858665 ]