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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:39 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:23:53 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0002176
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02176
Metabolite Identification
Common NameEthylmethylacetic acid
DescriptionEthylmethylacetic acid, also known as alpha-methyl butyric acid or a-methyl butyrate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as methyl-branched fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an acyl chain that has a methyl branch. Usually, they are saturated and contain only one or more methyl group. However, branches other than methyl may be present. Ethylmethylacetic acid is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral.
Structure
Data?1582752233
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Methybutyric acidChEBI
alpha-Methyl butyric acidChEBI
alpha-Methylbutyric acidChEBI
Butane-2-carboxylic acidChEBI
Methylethylacetic acidChEBI
2-Methylbutyric acidKegg
2-MethybutyrateGenerator
a-Methyl butyrateGenerator
a-Methyl butyric acidGenerator
alpha-Methyl butyrateGenerator
Α-methyl butyrateGenerator
Α-methyl butyric acidGenerator
a-MethylbutyrateGenerator
a-Methylbutyric acidGenerator
alpha-MethylbutyrateGenerator
Α-methylbutyrateGenerator
Α-methylbutyric acidGenerator
Butane-2-carboxylateGenerator
MethylethylacetateGenerator
2-MethylbutyrateGenerator
EthylmethylacetateGenerator
(+/-)-2-methylbutyrateHMDB
(+/-)-2-methylbutyric acidHMDB
2-EthylpropionateHMDB
2-Ethylpropionic acidHMDB
2-Methyl butyrateHMDB
2-Methyl butyric acidHMDB
2-MethylbutanoateHMDB
2-Methylbutanoic acidHMDB
D-2-Methyl butyrateHMDB
D-2-Methyl butyric acidHMDB
DL-2-Methy butyrateHMDB
DL-2-Methy butyric acidHMDB
DL-2-MethylbutyrateHMDB
DL-2-Methylbutyric acidHMDB
2-Methylbutyrate, (+-)-isomerHMDB
2-Methylbutyrate, sodium saltHMDB
RS-2-MethylbutyrateHMDB
Ethylmethylacetic acidChEBI
Chemical FormulaC5H10O2
Average Molecular Weight102.1317
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight102.068079564
IUPAC Name2-methylbutanoic acid
Traditional Name(+-)-2-methylbutyrate
CAS Registry Number116-53-0
SMILES
CCC(C)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H10O2/c1-3-4(2)5(6)7/h4H,3H2,1-2H3,(H,6,7)
InChI KeyWLAMNBDJUVNPJU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as methyl-branched fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an acyl chain that has a methyl branch. Usually, they are saturated and contain only one or more methyl group. However, branches other than methyl may be present.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentMethyl-branched fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility45 mg/mL at 20 °CNot Available
LogP1.18HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility57.2 g/LALOGPS
logP1.47ALOGPS
logP1.46ChemAxon
logS-0.25ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.97ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity26.45 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.98 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-05i3-9000000000-0aaa78177c0a6f4e0f30Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-05i3-9000000000-0aaa78177c0a6f4e0f30Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-056r-9000000000-2909ffab0f5a63851edfSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05dr-9200000000-d03c368f82e8aafbbf2eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-05i3-9000000000-1b5a036458bffab2edb2Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udr-9500000000-015593bb5625d47062e0Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-9cefc93a02ed409afaa7Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-4c09f00d4b395429c15fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udr-9500000000-015593bb5625d47062e0Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-9cefc93a02ed409afaa7Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-4c09f00d4b395429c15fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-2900000000-91099c4563c2a38048c7Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0pb9-9500000000-614d914711126947b2ccSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-0c48b735fe7cb3bd438fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-2900000000-91099c4563c2a38048c7Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0pb9-9500000000-614d914711126947b2ccSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-0c48b735fe7cb3bd438fSpectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-05i0-9000000000-5202133990304f535e3eSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified735.913 +/- 226.276 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified80-2120 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified8.04 +/- 7.66 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0097 nmol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Campylobacter jejuni infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn's disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Garner CE, Smith S, de Lacy Costello B, White P, Spencer R, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM: Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. FASEB J. 2007 Jun;21(8):1675-88. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314143 ]
  2. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
  3. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
  4. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
Celiac disease
  1. Di Cagno R, De Angelis M, De Pasquale I, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, Ricciuti P, Gagliardi F, Laghi L, Crecchio C, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Oct 4;11:219. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219. [PubMed:21970810 ]
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  1. Raman M, Ahmed I, Gillevet PM, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM, Smith S, Greenwood R, Sikaroodi M, Lam V, Crotty P, Bailey J, Myers RP, Rioux KP: Fecal microbiome and volatile organic compound metabolome in obese humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jul;11(7):868-75.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.02.015. Epub 2013 Feb 27. [PubMed:23454028 ]
Autism
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
  2. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB011876
KNApSAcK IDC00029461
Chemspider ID8012
KEGG Compound IDC18319
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID6528
PubChem Compound8314
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID37070
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceBueding, Ernest; Yale, Helen W. Production of a-methylbutyric acid by bacteria-free Ascaris lumbricoides. Journal of Biological Chemistry (1951), 193 411-23.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Schatowitz B, Gercken G: Simultaneous determination of C2-C22 non-esterified fatty acids and other metabolically relevant carboxylic acids in biological material by gas chromatography of their benzyl esters. J Chromatogr. 1988 Mar 18;425(2):257-68. [PubMed:3372640 ]
  2. Korman SH, Andresen BS, Zeharia A, Gutman A, Boneh A, Pitt JJ: 2-ethylhydracrylic aciduria in short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: application to diagnosis and implications for the R-pathway of isoleucine oxidation. Clin Chem. 2005 Mar;51(3):610-7. Epub 2004 Dec 22. [PubMed:15615815 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
Ethylmethylacetic acid → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-[(2-methylbutanoyl)oxy]oxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails