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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:47 UTC
Update Date2021-09-07 16:45:33 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02302
Metabolite Identification
Common NameIndole-3-propionic acid
DescriptionIndole-3-propionic acid (IPA, indole-3-propionate, or indole propionic acid), is a reductive product of tryptophan formed by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds (PMID:29168502 ). It is endogenously produced by human microbiota and has only been detected in vivo (PMID:19234110 ). While many microbial metabolites produced in the gut are toxic or act as uremic toxins (when they are reabsorbed through the gut epithelia), indole-3-propionic acid is a very beneficial microbial metabolite (PMID:30914514 , 30862081 , 29238104 ). In limited studies, urinary IPA correlates positively with disease and it remains unclear if this represents host bacteria responding to pathology via the production of IPA, or intestinal permeability changes leading to higher absorption and excretion of IPA, or inflammatory changes within kidneys leading to high excretion of IPA (PMID:32132996 ). Indole-3-propionic acid is a remarkably strong antioxidant (PMID:10721080 ). It is an even more potent scavenger of hydroxyl radicals than melatonin, the most potent scavenger of hydroxyl radicals synthesized by the human body. Similar to melatonin but unlike other antioxidants, indole-3-propionic acid scavenges radicals without subsequently generating reactive and pro-oxidant intermediate compounds (PMID:9928448 , 10419516 ). Indole-3-propionic acid has been shown to prevent oxidative stress and the death of primary neurons and neuroblastoma cells exposed to the amyloid beta-protein in the form of amyloid fibrils, one of the most prominent neuropathologic features of Alzheimer's disease. 3-Indolepropionic acid also shows a strong level of neuroprotection in two other paradigms of oxidative stress. (PMID 10419516 ) More recently it has been found that higher indole-3-propionic acid levels in serum/plasma are associated with a reduced likelihood of type 2 diabetes and with higher levels of consumption of fibre-rich foods (PMID:28397877 ). Studies have shown that serum levels of indole-3-propionic acid are positively correlated with dietary fibre intake and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein levels (PMID:29795366 ). Indole-3-propionic acid is a marker for the presence of Clostridium sporogenes in the gut. Higher levels are associated with higher levels of Clostridium sporogenes (PMID:7378938 ). In addition to its useful physiological role in mammals, indole-3-propionic acid is a plant hormone with functions similar to indole-3-acetic acid (or IAA), the major plant auxin. Recent studies have shed some light on additional mechanisms of action of IPA. In the intestine, IPA could serve as a ligand to an adopted orphan nuclear receptor, Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and act as an anti-inflammatory agent (PMID:25065623 ). This property has allowed investigators to develop more potent analogs targeting PXR (PMID:32153125 ). Other tissues may also be targeted by IPA in a similar manner (PMID:31211619 ).
beta-(3-Indolyl)propionic acidChEBI
Indolepropionic acidChEBI
b-(3-Indolyl)propionic acidGenerator
Β-(3-indolyl)propionic acidGenerator
Indole propionateMeSH
Indole-3-propanoic acidMeSH
Indole-3-propionic acidChEBI
3-IndolepropionateGenerator, HMDB
1H-Indole-3-propionic acidHMDB
3-(1H-indol-3-yl)PropanoateHMDB, Generator
3-(1H-Indol-3-yl)propanoic acidHMDB
3-(1H-Indol-3-yl)propionic acidHMDB
3-(3-Indolyl)propanoic acidHMDB
3-(3-Indolyl)propionic acidHMDB
b-Indole-3-propionic acidHMDB
b-Indolepropionic acidHMDB
beta-Indole-3-propionic acidHMDB
beta-Indolepropionic acidHMDB
3-Indolepropionic acidHMDB
1H-Indole-3-propanoic acidHMDB
3-(Indole-3-yl)propanoic acidHMDB
3-(Indole-3-yl)propionic acidHMDB
beta-(3-Indolyl)propanoic acidHMDB
beta-Indole-3-propanoic acidHMDB
beta-Indolepropanoic acidHMDB
β-(3-Indolyl)propanoic acidHMDB
β-Indole-3-propanoic acidHMDB
β-Indole-3-propionic acidHMDB
β-Indolepropanoic acidHMDB
β-Indolepropionic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC11H11NO2
Average Molecular Weight189.2105
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight189.078978601
IUPAC Name3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid
Traditional Nameindolylpropionic acid
CAS Registry Number830-96-6
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives. Indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives are compounds containing a carboxylic acid chain (of at least 2 carbon atoms) linked to an indole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassIndolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentIndolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Indolyl carboxylic acid derivative
  • 3-alkylindole
  • Indole
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrole
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Biological location


Route of exposure

Physical Properties
Experimental Molecular Properties
Melting Point134 - 135 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP1.75HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental Spectral PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
Water Solubility0.73 g/LALOGPS
logP10(2.04) g/LALOGPS
logP10(2.15) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-2.4) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area53.09 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity53.05 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability20 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices


Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Indole-3-propionic acid,1TMS,#1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CCC1=C[NH]C2=CC=CC=C122028.0Semi standard non polar
Indole-3-propionic acid,1TMS,#2C[Si](C)(C)N1C=C(CCC(=O)O)C2=CC=CC=C212074.8Semi standard non polar
Indole-3-propionic acid,1TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CCC1=C[NH]C2=CC=CC=C122288.2Semi standard non polar
Indole-3-propionic acid,1TBDMS,#2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)N1C=C(CCC(=O)O)C2=CC=CC=C212334.4Semi standard non polar

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Indole-3-propionic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-1900000000-7964cf38946a23d631042017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Indole-3-propionic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-1900000000-7964cf38946a23d631042018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Indole-3-propionic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-002f-1900000000-79b70b4d80349fed40a22017-08-28Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Indole-3-propionic acid GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-8910000000-cc3bf52f2cbb339eea4a2017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Indole-3-propionic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-1900000000-de72f9061ea0bb241ef72015-03-01Not AvailableView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)2021-10-10Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Female
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Female
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.481 (0.291 - 1.095) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothHemodialysis patients with colon details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothOral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothOral leukoplakia (OLK) details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB02758
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB000941
KNApSAcK IDC00000115
Chemspider ID3613
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia Link3-Indolepropionic acid
PubChem Compound3744
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID43580
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceJohnson, Herbert E.; Crosby, Donald G. 3-Indolepropionic acid. Journal of Organic Chemistry (1960), 25 569-71.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Chyan YJ, Poeggeler B, Omar RA, Chain DG, Frangione B, Ghiso J, Pappolla MA: Potent neuroprotective properties against the Alzheimer beta-amyloid by an endogenous melatonin-related indole structure, indole-3-propionic acid. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 30;274(31):21937-42. [PubMed:10419516 ]
  2. Wikoff WR, Anfora AT, Liu J, Schultz PG, Lesley SA, Peters EC, Siuzdak G: Metabolomics analysis reveals large effects of gut microflora on mammalian blood metabolites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 10;106(10):3698-703. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0812874106. Epub 2009 Feb 20. [PubMed:19234110 ]
  3. Reiter RJ, Guerrero JM, Garcia JJ, Acuna-Castroviejo D: Reactive oxygen intermediates, molecular damage, and aging. Relation to melatonin. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 Nov 20;854:410-24. [PubMed:9928448 ]
  4. Kim WS, Gardan L, Rhim SL, Geider K: Erwinia pyrifoliae sp. nov., a novel pathogen that affects Asian pear trees (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1999 Apr;49 Pt 2:899-905. doi: 10.1099/00207713-49-2-899. [PubMed:10319516 ]
  5. de Mello VD, Paananen J, Lindstrom J, Lankinen MA, Shi L, Kuusisto J, Pihlajamaki J, Auriola S, Lehtonen M, Rolandsson O, Bergdahl IA, Nordin E, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S, Landberg R, Eriksson JG, Tuomilehto J, Hanhineva K, Uusitupa M: Indolepropionic acid and novel lipid metabolites are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 11;7:46337. doi: 10.1038/srep46337. [PubMed:28397877 ]
  6. Dodd D, Spitzer MH, Van Treuren W, Merrill BD, Hryckowian AJ, Higginbottom SK, Le A, Cowan TM, Nolan GP, Fischbach MA, Sonnenburg JL: A gut bacterial pathway metabolizes aromatic amino acids into nine circulating metabolites. Nature. 2017 Nov 30;551(7682):648-652. doi: 10.1038/nature24661. Epub 2017 Nov 22. [PubMed:29168502 ]
  7. Jellet JJ, Forrest TP, Macdonald IA, Marrie TJ, Holdeman LV: Production of indole-3-propanoic acid and 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid by Clostridium sporogenes: a convenient thin-layer chromatography detection system. Can J Microbiol. 1980 Apr;26(4):448-53. [PubMed:7378938 ]
  8. Tuomainen M, Lindstrom J, Lehtonen M, Auriola S, Pihlajamaki J, Peltonen M, Tuomilehto J, Uusitupa M, de Mello VD, Hanhineva K: Associations of serum indolepropionic acid, a gut microbiota metabolite, with type 2 diabetes and low-grade inflammation in high-risk individuals. Nutr Diabetes. 2018 May 25;8(1):35. doi: 10.1038/s41387-018-0046-9. [PubMed:29795366 ]
  9. Galligan JJ: Beneficial actions of microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolites. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2018 Feb;30(2). doi: 10.1111/nmo.13283. [PubMed:29341448 ]
  10. Cason CA, Dolan KT, Sharma G, Tao M, Kulkarni R, Helenowski IB, Doane BM, Avram MJ, McDermott MM, Chang EB, Ozaki CK, Ho KJ: Plasma microbiome-modulated indole- and phenyl-derived metabolites associate with advanced atherosclerosis and postoperative outcomes. J Vasc Surg. 2018 Nov;68(5):1552-1562.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2017.09.029. Epub 2017 Dec 13. [PubMed:29248242 ]
  11. Gaetani L, Boscaro F, Pieraccini G, Calabresi P, Romani L, Di Filippo M, Zelante T: Host and Microbial Tryptophan Metabolic Profiling in Multiple Sclerosis. Front Immunol. 2020 Feb 18;11:157. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00157. eCollection 2020. [PubMed:32132996 ]
  12. Rothhammer V, Mascanfroni ID, Bunse L, Takenaka MC, Kenison JE, Mayo L, Chao CC, Patel B, Yan R, Blain M, Alvarez JI, Kebir H, Anandasabapathy N, Izquierdo G, Jung S, Obholzer N, Pochet N, Clish CB, Prinz M, Prat A, Antel J, Quintana FJ: Type I interferons and microbial metabolites of tryptophan modulate astrocyte activity and central nervous system inflammation via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Nat Med. 2016 Jun;22(6):586-97. doi: 10.1038/nm.4106. Epub 2016 May 9. [PubMed:27158906 ]
  13. Zhao ZH, Xin FZ, Xue Y, Hu Z, Han Y, Ma F, Zhou D, Liu XL, Cui A, Liu Z, Liu Y, Gao J, Pan Q, Li Y, Fan JG: Indole-3-propionic acid inhibits gut dysbiosis and endotoxin leakage to attenuate steatohepatitis in rats. Exp Mol Med. 2019 Sep 10;51(9):1-14. doi: 10.1038/s12276-019-0304-5. [PubMed:31506421 ]
  14. Mimori S, Kawada K, Saito R, Takahashi M, Mizoi K, Okuma Y, Hosokawa M, Kanzaki T: Indole-3-propionic acid has chemical chaperone activity and suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal cell death. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019 Oct 1;517(4):623-628. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.07.074. Epub 2019 Aug 1. [PubMed:31378367 ]
  15. Pulakazhi Venu VK, Saifeddine M, Mihara K, Tsai YC, Nieves K, Alston L, Mani S, McCoy KD, Hollenberg MD, Hirota SA: The pregnane X receptor and its microbiota-derived ligand indole 3-propionic acid regulate endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Aug 1;317(2):E350-E361. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00572.2018. Epub 2019 Jun 18. [PubMed:31211619 ]
  16. Negatu DA, Yamada Y, Xi Y, Go ML, Zimmerman M, Ganapathy U, Dartois V, Gengenbacher M, Dick T: Gut Microbiota Metabolite Indole Propionic Acid Targets Tryptophan Biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. mBio. 2019 Mar 26;10(2). pii: mBio.02781-18. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02781-18. [PubMed:30914514 ]
  17. Konopelski P, Konop M, Gawrys-Kopczynska M, Podsadni P, Szczepanska A, Ufnal M: Indole-3-Propionic Acid, a Tryptophan-Derived Bacterial Metabolite, Reduces Weight Gain in Rats. Nutrients. 2019 Mar 11;11(3). pii: nu11030591. doi: 10.3390/nu11030591. [PubMed:30862081 ]
  18. Alexeev EE, Lanis JM, Kao DJ, Campbell EL, Kelly CJ, Battista KD, Gerich ME, Jenkins BR, Walk ST, Kominsky DJ, Colgan SP: Microbiota-Derived Indole Metabolites Promote Human and Murine Intestinal Homeostasis through Regulation of Interleukin-10 Receptor. Am J Pathol. 2018 May;188(5):1183-1194. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.01.011. Epub 2018 Feb 16. [PubMed:29454749 ]
  19. Yisireyili M, Takeshita K, Saito S, Murohara T, Niwa T: Indole-3-propionic acid suppresses indoxyl sulfate-induced expression of fibrotic and inflammatory genes in proximal tubular cells. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2017 Nov;79(4):477-486. doi: 10.18999/nagjms.79.4.477. [PubMed:29238104 ]
  20. Abildgaard A, Elfving B, Hokland M, Wegener G, Lund S: The microbial metabolite indole-3-propionic acid improves glucose metabolism in rats, but does not affect behaviour. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2018 Oct;124(4):306-312. doi: 10.1080/13813455.2017.1398262. Epub 2017 Nov 7. [PubMed:29113509 ]
  21. Jennis M, Cavanaugh CR, Leo GC, Mabus JR, Lenhard J, Hornby PJ: Microbiota-derived tryptophan indoles increase after gastric bypass surgery and reduce intestinal permeability in vitro and in vivo. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2018 Feb;30(2). doi: 10.1111/nmo.13178. Epub 2017 Aug 7. [PubMed:28782205 ]
  22. Karbownik M, Stasiak M, Zygmunt A, Zasada K, Lewinski A: Protective effects of melatonin and indole-3-propionic acid against lipid peroxidation, caused by potassium bromate in the rat kidney. Cell Biochem Funct. 2006 Nov-Dec;24(6):483-9. doi: 10.1002/cbf.1321. [PubMed:16397908 ]
  23. Karbownik M, Stasiak M, Zasada K, Zygmunt A, Lewinski A: Comparison of potential protective effects of melatonin, indole-3-propionic acid, and propylthiouracil against lipid peroxidation caused by potassium bromate in the thyroid gland. J Cell Biochem. 2005 May 1;95(1):131-8. doi: 10.1002/jcb.20404. [PubMed:15723291 ]
  24. Bendheim PE, Poeggeler B, Neria E, Ziv V, Pappolla MA, Chain DG: Development of indole-3-propionic acid (OXIGON) for Alzheimer's disease. J Mol Neurosci. 2002 Aug-Oct;19(1-2):213-7. doi: 10.1007/s12031-002-0036-0. [PubMed:12212784 ]
  25. Karbownik M, Garcia JJ, Lewinski A, Reiter RJ: Carcinogen-induced, free radical-mediated reduction in microsomal membrane fluidity: reversal by indole-3-propionic acid. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2001 Feb;33(1):73-8. doi: 10.1023/a:1005628808688. [PubMed:11460928 ]
  26. Karbownik M, Reiter RJ, Garcia JJ, Cabrera J, Burkhardt S, Osuna C, Lewinski A: Indole-3-propionic acid, a melatonin-related molecule, protects hepatic microsomal membranes from iron-induced oxidative damage: relevance to cancer reduction. J Cell Biochem. 2001;81(3):507-13. [PubMed:11255233 ]
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  30. Hardeland R, Zsizsik BK, Poeggeler B, Fuhrberg B, Holst S, Coto-Montes A: Indole-3-pyruvic and -propionic acids, kynurenic acid, and related metabolites as luminophores and free-radical scavengers. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;467:389-95. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-4709-9_49. [PubMed:10721080 ]
  31. Venkatesh M, Mukherjee S, Wang H, Li H, Sun K, Benechet AP, Qiu Z, Maher L, Redinbo MR, Phillips RS, Fleet JC, Kortagere S, Mukherjee P, Fasano A, Le Ven J, Nicholson JK, Dumas ME, Khanna KM, Mani S: Symbiotic bacterial metabolites regulate gastrointestinal barrier function via the xenobiotic sensor PXR and Toll-like receptor 4. Immunity. 2014 Aug 21;41(2):296-310. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2014.06.014. Epub 2014 Jul 24. [PubMed:25065623 ]
  32. Dvorak Z, Kopp F, Costello CM, Kemp JS, Li H, Vrzalova A, Stepankova M, Bartonkova I, Jiskrova E, Poulikova K, Vyhlidalova B, Nordstroem LU, Karunaratne CV, Ranhotra HS, Mun KS, Naren AP, Murray IA, Perdew GH, Brtko J, Toporova L, Schon A, Wallace BD, Walton WG, Redinbo MR, Sun K, Beck A, Kortagere S, Neary MC, Chandran A, Vishveshwara S, Cavalluzzi MM, Lentini G, Cui JY, Gu H, March JC, Chatterjee S, Matson A, Wright D, Flannigan KL, Hirota SA, Sartor RB, Mani S: Targeting the pregnane X receptor using microbial metabolite mimicry. EMBO Mol Med. 2020 Mar 10:e11621. doi: 10.15252/emmm.201911621. [PubMed:32153125 ]