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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:49 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:24:04 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02349
Metabolite Identification
Common Nametrans-trans-Muconic acid
Descriptiontrans,trans-Muconic acid is a urinary metabolite of benzene and has been used as a biomarker of exposure to benzene in humans exposed to levels as low as 1 ppm. However, muconic acid may also be derived from sorbic acid and its salts. Dietary supplementation with 500 mg sorbic acid significantly increases the urinary trans,trans-muconic acid excretion. Under study conditions, 0.12% of the sorbic acid dose is excreted in urine as trans,trans-muconic acid thereby indicating that a typical dietary intake of 6-30 mg/day of sorbic acid accounts for 10-50% of the background of trans,trans-muconic acid excretion in nonsmokers, and for 5-25% in smokers (PMID: 8021961 , 1487326 , 9137998 , Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1997;69(4):247-51.). trans,trans-Muconic acid has been found to be a metabolite in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida (PMID: 26360870 ).
(2E,4E)-2,4-Hexadienedioic acidChEBI
(e,e)-2,4-Hexadienedioic acidChEBI
(e,e)-Muconic acidChEBI
trans,trans-1,3-Butadiene-1,4-dicarboxylic acidChEBI
trans,trans-2,4-Hexadienedioic acidChEBI
trans,trans-Buta-1,3-diene-1,4-dicarboxylic acidChEBI
1,3-Butadiene-1,4-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
Hexa-2,4-dienedioic acidHMDB
Muconic acidHMDB
trans,trans-Muconic acidHMDB
trans-beta-Hydromuconic acidMeSH
Muconic acid, (e,e)-isomerMeSH
Chemical FormulaC6H6O4
Average Molecular Weight142.1094
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight142.02660868
IUPAC Name(2E,4E)-hexa-2,4-dienedioic acid
Traditional Nametrans, trans-muconic acid
CAS Registry Number3588-17-8
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as medium-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 4 and 12 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentMedium-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point301 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.2 mg/mL at 15 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility3.48 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.87ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity34.93 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.65 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-00di-3950000000-4833ed03fecc5d107087Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-3950000000-4833ed03fecc5d107087Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0920000000-25984cbefee561769fe3Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0005-9400000000-1d771b996d6b60d97202Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dj-8930000000-43cca1649a383c178957Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-002f-1900000000-ba0597e9fe553580b776Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004m-9700000000-bb11fdbd4cb83319bdcfSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-9000000000-60049330475bcfa51fddSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-1900000000-d089e6c88da6929f4c62Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-5900000000-d4f0aa2255b01aabc0bfSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0fdp-9300000000-bc5a2d5e39f202b87d9cSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Platelet
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.016 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.1 (0.05 - 0.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothSmoking details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.16 +/- 0.02 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
    Benzene exposure
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Benzene exposure
    1. Chanvaivit S, Navasumrit P, Hunsonti P, Autrup H, Ruchirawat M: Exposure assessment of benzene in Thai workers, DNA-repair capacity and influence of genetic polymorphisms. Mutat Res. 2007 Jan 10;626(1-2):79-87. Epub 2006 Nov 13. [PubMed:17095285 ]
    1. Ruppert T, Scherer G, Tricker AR, Adlkofer F: trans,trans-muconic acid as a biomarker of non-occupational environmental exposure to benzene. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1997;69(4):247-51. [PubMed:9137998 ]
    Associated OMIM IDsNone
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB022974
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID4512358
    KEGG Compound IDNot Available
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkMuconic_acid
    METLIN ID6639
    PubChem Compound5356793
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID27036
    Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
    VMH IDNot Available
    Synthesis ReferenceErlenmeyer, H.; Schoenauer, W. A synthesis of trans-trans-muconic acid from fumaric acid. Helvetica Chimica Acta (1937), 20 1008-12.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Renner T, Baer-Koetzle M, Scherer G: Determination of sorbic acid in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 1999 Jun 25;847(1-2):127-33. [PubMed:10431356 ]
    2. Kim S, Vermeulen R, Waidyanatha S, Johnson BA, Lan Q, Rothman N, Smith MT, Zhang L, Li G, Shen M, Yin S, Rappaport SM: Using urinary biomarkers to elucidate dose-related patterns of human benzene metabolism. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Apr;27(4):772-81. Epub 2005 Dec 8. [PubMed:16339183 ]
    3. Wiwanitkit V, Suwansaksri J, Soogarun S: The urine trans, trans muconic acid biomarker and platelet count in a sample of subjects with benzene exposure. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2004 Jan;10(1):73-6. [PubMed:14979410 ]
    4. Hecht SS: Human urinary carcinogen metabolites: biomarkers for investigating tobacco and cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2002 Jun;23(6):907-22. [PubMed:12082012 ]
    5. Bartczak A, Kline SA, Yu R, Weisel CP, Goldstein BD, Witz G, Bechtold WE: Evaluation of assays for the identification and quantitation of muconic acid, a benzene metabolite in human urine. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1994 Jul;42(3):245-58. [PubMed:8021961 ]
    6. Ducos P, Gaudin R, Bel J, Maire C, Francin JM, Robert A, Wild P: trans,trans-Muconic acid, a reliable biological indicator for the detection of individual benzene exposure down to the ppm level. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1992;64(5):309-13. [PubMed:1487326 ]
    7. Ruppert T, Scherer G, Tricker AR, Adlkofer F: trans,trans-muconic acid as a biomarker of non-occupational environmental exposure to benzene. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1997;69(4):247-51. [PubMed:9137998 ]
    8. Becker J, Lange A, Fabarius J, Wittmann C: Top value platform chemicals: bio-based production of organic acids. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2015 Dec;36:168-75. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2015.08.022. Epub 2015 Sep 8. [PubMed:26360870 ]