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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:43 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:49:18 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0003229
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0060082
  • HMDB03229
  • HMDB60082
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePalmitoleic acid
DescriptionPalmitoleic acid, or (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid, is an omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid (16:1n-7) with the formula CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH that is a common constituent of the glycerides of human adipose tissue. Present in all tissues, it is generally found in higher concentrations in the liver. Macadamia oil (Macadamia integrifolia) and sea buckthorn oil (Hippophae rhamnoides) are botanical sources of palmitoleic acid, containing 22 and 40% respectively. Palmitoleic acid is found to be associated with isovaleric acidemia, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Data?1601280226
Synonyms
ValueSource
(9Z)-Hexadecenoic acidChEBI
(Z)-9-Hexadecenoic acidChEBI
(Z)-Hexadec-9-enoic acidChEBI
16:1DElta9ChEBI
9-cis-Hexadecenoic acidChEBI
cis-9-Hexadecenoic acidChEBI
cis-9-Palmitoleic acidChEBI
cis-delta-9-Hexadecenoic acidChEBI
cis-Delta(9)-Hexadecenoic acidChEBI
cis-Palmitoleic acidChEBI
Oleopalmitic acidChEBI
Palmitolinoleic acidChEBI
Zoomaric acidChEBI
Zoomeric acidChEBI
(9Z)-Hexadec-9-enoateKegg
(9Z)-HexadecenoateGenerator
(Z)-9-HexadecenoateGenerator
(Z)-Hexadec-9-enoateGenerator
9-cis-HexadecenoateGenerator
cis-9-HexadecenoateGenerator
cis-9-PalmitoleateGenerator
cis-delta-9-HexadecenoateGenerator
cis-Δ-9-hexadecenoateGenerator
cis-Δ-9-hexadecenoic acidGenerator
cis-delta(9)-HexadecenoateGenerator
cis-Δ(9)-hexadecenoateGenerator
cis-Δ(9)-hexadecenoic acidGenerator
cis-PalmitoleateGenerator
OleopalmitateGenerator
PalmitolinoleateGenerator
ZoomarateGenerator
ZoomerateGenerator
(9Z)-Hexadec-9-enoic acidGenerator
PalmitoleateGenerator
9-HexadecenoateHMDB
9-Hexadecenoic acidHMDB
HexadecenoateHMDB
Hexadecenoate (N-C16:1)HMDB
Hexadecenoic acidHMDB
Palmitoleic acid, (Z)-isomerHMDB
Palmitoleic acid, (e)-isomerHMDB
C16:1 trans-9HMDB
Palmitelaidic acidHMDB
(9Z)-9-Hexadecenoic acidHMDB
9Z-Hexadecenoic acidHMDB
C16:1HMDB
FA(16:1(9Z))HMDB
FA(16:1n7)HMDB
cis-delta9-Hexadecenoic acidHMDB
cis-Δ9-hexadecenoic acidHMDB
Palmitoleic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC16H30O2
Average Molecular Weight254.4082
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight254.224580204
IUPAC Name(9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid
Traditional Namepalmitoleic acid
CAS Registry Number373-49-9
SMILES
CCCCCC\C=C/CCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C16H30O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16(17)18/h7-8H,2-6,9-15H2,1H3,(H,17,18)/b8-7-
InChI KeySECPZKHBENQXJG-FPLPWBNLSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentLong-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-0.1 °CNot Available
Boiling Point363.00 to 364.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility0.13 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
LogP6.402 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Experimental Chromatographic Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

Adduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
[M-H]-Not Available167.2http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00002150
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00045 g/LALOGPS
logP6.71ALOGPS
logP5.89ChemAxon
logS-5.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity78.2 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability32.87 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+168.7831661259
DarkChem[M-H]-170.531661259
DeepCCS[M+H]+171.99530932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-167.97530932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-205.41230932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+181.2130932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Palmitoleic acidCCCCCC\C=C/CCCCCCCC(O)=O2908.9Standard polar33892256
Palmitoleic acidCCCCCC\C=C/CCCCCCCC(O)=O1900.8Standard non polar33892256
Palmitoleic acidCCCCCC\C=C/CCCCCCCC(O)=O1956.1Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Palmitoleic acid,1TMS,isomer #1CCCCCC/C=C\CCCCCCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C2021.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Palmitoleic acid,1TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCCC/C=C\CCCCCCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2269.4Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-00nb-5900000000-90ab9a21246ad658bda02014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00mk-2900000000-6683cd8579813b4f1ebb2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00nb-5900000000-90ab9a21246ad658bda02017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00nb-5900000000-90ab9a21246ad658bda02017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-8910000000-20fcd1fc2d9e095b2c242016-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00fr-9630000000-7eda678c0ecd65b2e4792017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid ESI-TOF 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-0092000000-b8aabbdc61f9b89ac3592017-08-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid ESI-TOF 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-0092000000-b8aabbdc61f9b89ac3592017-08-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid ESI-TOF , Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-0092000000-b8aabbdc61f9b89ac3592017-08-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid ESI-TOF 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0090000000-993c95f96e1ca69a41c02017-09-12HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid ESI-TOF 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0090000000-e72ac58f23bacbf373442017-09-12HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid ESI-TOF 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0090000000-d1585cc46cbce84a05062017-09-12HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid ESI-TOF , Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0091000000-fd89101236e85a2d91542017-09-12HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0090000000-35027c88ff732ff74b4c2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0090000000-3cac469ac1efde0a35432017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0090000000-e5833c7aa4795570bdc42017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-9090000000-909ebad9120d01bf8e792017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-004j-9000000000-fb5a2e21c48a7d72aac82017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid LC-ESI-IT , negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0090000000-09c91b61deabc72625f32017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid LC-ESI-TOF , negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0090000000-993c95f96e1ca69a41c02017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid LC-ESI-TOF , negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0090000000-e72ac58f23bacbf373442017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid n/a 17V, positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0490000000-472e6cf8ba7a80f708b82020-07-22HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid Orbitrap 1V, positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-3c6c13dcd5649fd908452020-07-22HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid Orbitrap 2V, positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-e5cccbc8340bb0dce9d32020-07-22HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid Orbitrap 3V, positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-2490000000-1dbd141e66d6e7a165ae2020-07-22HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-052r-0090000000-202819132f83589a248b2015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4s-7790000000-ff129e0c7cc2a7e4cf192015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-052f-9600000000-749f09fec19d95c216832015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0090000000-5005f244d7d1c3502c3e2015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0zg0-1090000000-cac7fce9a75b0f1abd632015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Palmitoleic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4l-9320000000-2e782c63ccf72afe9be92015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified13 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified15 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified18 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified21 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified27 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified28 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified34 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified19.0639 +/- 11.674 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified240 +/- 100 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified250 +/- 70 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified31.0 (5.0-85.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified9.66 +/- 6.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified6.390 +/- 4.279 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.5 +/- 2.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.9-6.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.7 +/- 0.169 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified244.4 +/- 108.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified12 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.0 +/- 2.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.8 (0.7-6.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.02 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified206.0 +/- 92.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Isovaleric acidemia
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Bothliver cirrhosis details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Isovaleric acidemia
  1. Dercksen M, Kulik W, Mienie LJ, Reinecke CJ, Wanders RJ, Duran M: Polyunsaturated fatty acid status in treated isovaleric acidemia patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Oct;70(10):1123-1126. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.100. Epub 2016 Jun 22. [PubMed:27329611 ]
Cirrhosis
  1. Huang HJ, Zhang AY, Cao HC, Lu HF, Wang BH, Xie Q, Xu W, Li LJ: Metabolomic analyses of faeces reveals malabsorption in cirrhotic patients. Dig Liver Dis. 2013 Aug;45(8):677-82. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2013.01.001. Epub 2013 Feb 4. [PubMed:23384618 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  2. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB04257
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB031085
KNApSAcK IDC00001234
Chemspider ID393216
KEGG Compound IDC08362
BioCyc IDCPD-9245
BiGG ID246167
Wikipedia LinkPalmitoleic acid
METLIN ID188
PubChem Compound445638
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28716
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDHDCEA
MarkerDB IDMDB00030007
Good Scents IDrw1271951
References
Synthesis ReferenceXu, Huashun; Luo, Yuping; Li, Siguang. Palmitoleic acid production by fermentation with yeast. Zhongguo Youzhi (1999), 24(6), 53-55.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Katsuta Y, Iida T, Inomata S, Denda M: Unsaturated fatty acids induce calcium influx into keratinocytes and cause abnormal differentiation of epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 May;124(5):1008-13. [PubMed:15854043 ]
  3. Rossner S, Walldius G, Bjorvell H: Fatty acid composition in serum lipids and adipose tissue in severe obesity before and after six weeks of weight loss. Int J Obes. 1989;13(5):603-12. [PubMed:2583914 ]
  4. Ho RC, Davy KP, Hickey MS, Summers SA, Melby CL: Behavioral, metabolic, and molecular correlates of lower insulin sensitivity in Mexican-Americans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Oct;283(4):E799-808. [PubMed:12217898 ]
  5. Hori Y, Nakamura K, Yamamoto M, Shimada K, Nakadaira H, Shibuya N, Endoh K, Ogoshi K: Determination of free fatty acids in human bile by high-performance liquid chromatography. Ann Clin Biochem. 1998 Mar;35 ( Pt 2):279-82. [PubMed:9547901 ]
  6. Yli-Jama P, Haugen TS, Rebnord HM, Ringstad J, Pedersen JI: Selective mobilisation of fatty acids from human adipose tissue. Eur J Intern Med. 2001 Apr;12(2):107-115. [PubMed:11297913 ]
  7. Prandota J: Clinical pharmacology of antibiotics and other drugs in cystic fibrosis. Drugs. 1988 May;35(5):542-78. [PubMed:3293970 ]
  8. Thiele I, Swainston N, Fleming RM, Hoppe A, Sahoo S, Aurich MK, Haraldsdottir H, Mo ML, Rolfsson O, Stobbe MD, Thorleifsson SG, Agren R, Bolling C, Bordel S, Chavali AK, Dobson P, Dunn WB, Endler L, Hala D, Hucka M, Hull D, Jameson D, Jamshidi N, Jonsson JJ, Juty N, Keating S, Nookaew I, Le Novere N, Malys N, Mazein A, Papin JA, Price ND, Selkov E Sr, Sigurdsson MI, Simeonidis E, Sonnenschein N, Smallbone K, Sorokin A, van Beek JH, Weichart D, Goryanin I, Nielsen J, Westerhoff HV, Kell DB, Mendes P, Palsson BO: A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 May;31(5):419-25. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2488. Epub 2013 Mar 3. [PubMed:23455439 ]
  9. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
In fatty acid biosynthesis chain termination and release of the free fatty acid product is achieved by hydrolysis of the thio ester by a thioesterase I, a component of the fatty acid synthetase complex. The chain length of the released fatty acid is usually C16. However, in the mammary glands of non-ruminant mammals, and in the uropygial gland of certain waterfowl there exists a second thioesterase which releases medium-chain length fatty acids (C8 to C2) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
OLAH
Uniprot ID:
Q9NV23
Molecular weight:
29930.82