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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-12 20:13:01 UTC
Update Date2020-04-22 23:28:08 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0003402
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB03402
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePectin
DescriptionPectin, also known as galacturonate or D-lyxose, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glucuronic acid derivatives. Glucuronic acid derivatives are compounds containing a glucuronic acid moiety (or a derivative), which consists of a glucose moiety with the C6 carbon oxidized to a carboxylic acid. Pectin is a drug. Pectin is used in confectionery jellies to give a good gel structure, a clean bite and to confer a good flavour release. Pectin is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). Pectin exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans.
Structure
Data?1582752274
Synonyms
ValueSource
(+)-XyloseHMDB
2,3,4,5-TetrahydroxypentanalHMDB
D-LyxoseHMDB
DL-XyloseHMDB
L(+)-XyloseHMDB
L-LyxoseHMDB
LyxoseHMDB
Pectin sugarHMDB
PectinoseHMDB
PentoseHMDB
TrobicinHMDB
Pectinic acidHMDB
Calcium pectinateHMDB
Methoxy pectinHMDB
MethoxylpectinHMDB
MethoxypectinHMDB
Zinc pectinateHMDB
GalacturonateHMDB
b-D-GalacturonateHMDB
b-D-Galacturonic acidHMDB
beta-D-GalacturonateHMDB
Β-D-galacturonateHMDB
Β-D-galacturonic acidHMDB
PectinMeSH
Chemical FormulaC6H10O7
Average Molecular Weight194.1394
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight194.042652674
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Nameβ-D-galactopyranuronic acid
CAS Registry Number9000-69-5
SMILES
O[C@@H]1O[C@@H]([C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H10O7/c7-1-2(8)4(5(10)11)13-6(12)3(1)9/h1-4,6-9,12H,(H,10,11)/t1-,2+,3+,4-,6+/m0/s1
InChI KeyAEMOLEFTQBMNLQ-DTEWXJGMSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glucuronic acid derivatives. Glucuronic acid derivatives are compounds containing a glucuronic acid moiety (or a derivative), which consists of a glucose moiety with the C6 carbon oxidized to a carboxylic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentGlucuronic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glucuronic acid or derivatives
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Pyran
  • Monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Hemiacetal
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility295 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS0.18ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.21ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area127.45 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.79 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.37 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fvi-3900000000-623cfb10797e088f31a3Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000l-6242950000-7b610ed98440b47c2a32Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kr-6900000000-a4a0a279e2e16f432677Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9100000000-1c90dbe22f830f93ad0fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9000000000-cefd20d23fb5136d2104Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-002b-0900000000-142e51c19f7b152d18e6Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-056s-1900000000-80978d6e9cf43c2a99aeSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-9400000000-fe9d58fcfd8f4880243eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0007-2900000000-eecfa94a9428872c9b56Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000w-4900000000-c10f02b5bf83d62924f0Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9200000000-21b195d29543b18b8595Spectrum
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testis
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.26 (4.0-7.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Bladder cancer
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB03652
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB023162
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID390200
KEGG Compound IDC08348
BioCyc IDPECTIN
BiGG ID34162
Wikipedia LinkPectin
METLIN ID6916
PubChem Compound441476
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID47954
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceGu, Qu-Ming; Nickol, Robert G.; Cheng, H. N. Enzyme-catalyzed modification of pectin. Polymer Preprints (American Chemical Society, Division of Polymer Chemistry) (2003), 44(2), 608-609.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Andoh A, Bamba T, Sasaki M: Physiological and anti-inflammatory roles of dietary fiber and butyrate in intestinal functions. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999 Sep-Oct;23(5 Suppl):S70-3. [PubMed:10483900 ]
  2. Fleming SE, Marthinsen D, Kuhnlein H: Colonic function and fermentation in men consuming high fiber diets. J Nutr. 1983 Dec;113(12):2535-44. [PubMed:6317826 ]
  3. Lewinska D, Rosinski S, Piatkiewicz W: A new pectin-based material for selective LDL-cholesterol removal. Artif Organs. 1994 Mar;18(3):217-22. [PubMed:8185488 ]
  4. Kelsay JL, Goering HK, Behall KM, Prather ES: Effect of fiber from fruits and vegetables on metabolic responses of human subjects: fiber intakes, fecal excretions, and apparent digestibilities. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Sep;34(9):1849-52. [PubMed:6269418 ]
  5. Baig MM, Cerda JJ: Pectin: its interaction with serum lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Jan;34(1):50-3. [PubMed:7446458 ]
  6. Lairon D, Lafont H, Vigne JL, Nalbone G, Leonardi J, Hauton JC: Effects of dietary fibers and cholestyramine on the activity of pancreatic lipase in vitro. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985 Oct;42(4):629-38. [PubMed:2996326 ]
  7. Miettinen TA, Tarpila S: Effect of pectin on serum cholesterol, fecal bile acids and biliary lipids in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic individuals. Clin Chim Acta. 1977 Sep 1;79(2):471-7. [PubMed:890983 ]
  8. Bosaeus I, Carlsson NG, Sandberg AS, Andersson H: Effect of wheat bran and pectin on bile acid and cholesterol excretion in ileostomy patients. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr. 1986 Nov;40(6):429-40. [PubMed:3025137 ]
  9. Fan TY, Feng QQ, Jia CR, Fan Q, Li CA, Bai XL: Protective effect of Weikang decoction and partial ingredients on model rat with gastric mucosa ulcer. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Feb 28;11(8):1204-9. [PubMed:15754406 ]
  10. Levy MC, Edwards-Levy F: Coating alginate beads with cross-linked biopolymers: a novel method based on a transacylation reaction. J Microencapsul. 1996 Mar-Apr;13(2):169-83. [PubMed:8999122 ]
  11. Veldman FJ, Nair CH, Vorster HH, Vermaak WJ, Jerling JC, Oosthuizen W, Venter CS: Possible mechanisms through which dietary pectin influences fibrin network architecture in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Thromb Res. 1999 Mar 15;93(6):253-64. [PubMed:10093966 ]
  12. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215