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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-12 20:15:57 UTC
Update Date2021-10-13 04:41:36 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0003407
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB03407
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDiacetyl
DescriptionDiacetyl, also known as 2,3-butadione or dimethylglyoxal, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha-diketones. These are organic compounds containing two ketone groups on two adjacent carbon atoms. Thus, diacetyl is considered to be an oxygenated hydrocarbon lipid molecule. Diacetyl is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble in water, and relatively neutral. Diacetyl exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Diacetyl is a strong, sweet, and butter tasting compound. Outside of the human body, diacetyl is found, on average, in the highest concentration in kohlrabis. diacetyl has also been detected, but not quantified in several different foods, such as nances, tartary buckwheats, tamarinds, pineapples, and celeriacs. This could make diacetyl a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Diacetyl is a potentially toxic compound. Diacetyl has been found to be associated with several diseases such as crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; also diacetyl has been linked to the inborn metabolic disorders including celiac disease.
Structure
Data?1582752275
Synonyms
ValueSource
2,3-ButadioneChEBI
2,3-ButandioneChEBI
2,3-ButanedioneChEBI
2,3-DiketobutaneChEBI
2,3-DioxobutaneChEBI
BiacetylChEBI
Dimethyl glyoxalChEBI
DimethylglyoxalChEBI
2,3 ButanedioneMeSH
DiketobutaneMeSH
DimethyldiketoneMeSH
AcetoacetaldehydeHMDB
ButadioneHMDB
Butan-2,3-dioneHMDB
Butane-2,3-dioneHMDB
ButanedioneHMDB
Dimethyl diketoneHMDB
DiacetylChEBI
Chemical FormulaC4H6O2
Average Molecular Weight86.0892
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight86.036779436
IUPAC Namebutane-2,3-dione
Traditional Namediacetyl
CAS Registry Number431-03-8
SMILES
CC(=O)C(C)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H6O2/c1-3(5)4(2)6/h1-2H3
InChI KeyQSJXEFYPDANLFS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha-diketones. These are organic compounds containing two ketone groups on two adjacent carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbonyl compounds
Direct ParentAlpha-diketones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-diketone
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect
Disposition
Biological locationRoute of exposureSource
Process
Role
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-2.4 °CNot Available
Boiling Point87.00 to 88.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility200 mg/mL at 15 °CNot Available
LogP-1.34HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility129 g/LALOGPS
logP0.07ALOGPS
logP0.4ChemAxon
logS0.18ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.98ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-8.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity21.54 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.41 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+116.31831661259
DarkChem[M-H]-110.60931661259
DeepCCS[M+H]+121.14330932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-119.24830932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-154.73430932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+129.17930932474
AllCCS[M+H]+123.032859911
AllCCS[M+H-H2O]+118.632859911
AllCCS[M+NH4]+127.232859911
AllCCS[M+Na]+128.332859911
AllCCS[M-H]-124.432859911
AllCCS[M+Na-2H]-129.032859911
AllCCS[M+HCOO]-134.132859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
DiacetylCC(=O)C(C)=O915.1Standard polar33892256
DiacetylCC(=O)C(C)=O518.7Standard non polar33892256
DiacetylCC(=O)C(C)=O589.3Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Diacetyl,1TMS,isomer #1C=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C(C)=O893.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Diacetyl,1TMS,isomer #1C=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C(C)=O901.7Standard non polar33892256
Diacetyl,1TMS,isomer #1C=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C(C)=O1117.4Standard polar33892256
Diacetyl,2TMS,isomer #1C=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C(=C)O[Si](C)(C)C1089.0Semi standard non polar33892256
Diacetyl,2TMS,isomer #1C=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C(=C)O[Si](C)(C)C1082.9Standard non polar33892256
Diacetyl,2TMS,isomer #1C=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C(=C)O[Si](C)(C)C1119.4Standard polar33892256
Diacetyl,1TBDMS,isomer #1C=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(C)=O1137.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Diacetyl,1TBDMS,isomer #1C=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(C)=O1094.8Standard non polar33892256
Diacetyl,1TBDMS,isomer #1C=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(C)=O1303.8Standard polar33892256
Diacetyl,2TBDMS,isomer #1C=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1523.4Semi standard non polar33892256
Diacetyl,2TBDMS,isomer #1C=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1491.1Standard non polar33892256
Diacetyl,2TBDMS,isomer #1C=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1444.1Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Diacetyl EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-eeaaf8aa838a1d6a7dde2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Diacetyl EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-622030119adee3079d842017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Diacetyl EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-eeaaf8aa838a1d6a7dde2018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Diacetyl EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-622030119adee3079d842018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Diacetyl GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-58f4b3973bdf0094a5e32016-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Diacetyl GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-8d1a3988261033033e032014-09-20Not AvailableView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-4e7132ef8eb6971544b12012-07-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-00r5-9000000000-0cc5c90a4394d550268f2012-07-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-06dj-9000000000-a74bfecfcdb93a5c3e072012-07-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-eeaaf8aa838a1d6a7dde2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-171c3774c90fd50b6d6b2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-9000000000-6e218d8c4f1cb3a012542021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0ufr-9000000000-c27bd416a10df3c9c1d32021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-9000000000-49c29114e2316ba16f022021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 35V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-0c5000d8f4b14cdc5b052021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-e8c63126caa0f371f3362015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00kr-9000000000-82affa84acc0579c193b2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0udi-9000000000-f63598734c0af05eb3922015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-e8c63126caa0f371f3362015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00kr-9000000000-82affa84acc0579c193b2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0udi-9000000000-f63598734c0af05eb3922015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-2599bbcd002f75cefa1d2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-1171c0cf98959e7315c62015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014i-9000000000-7dcc0fc66bb1e551b3322015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-2599bbcd002f75cefa1d2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-1171c0cf98959e7315c62015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014i-9000000000-7dcc0fc66bb1e551b3322015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-87bbaed151efac0845912021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-87bbaed151efac0845912021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-87bbaed151efac0845912021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Diacetyl 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-ec20127c74818b1f634d2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, H2O, predicted)2022-08-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Feces
  • Saliva
Tissue Locations
  • Neuron
  • Ovary
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Testis
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified39261.603-345416.924 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Campylobacter jejuni infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-1550872.0412 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Garner CE, Smith S, de Lacy Costello B, White P, Spencer R, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM: Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. FASEB J. 2007 Jun;21(8):1675-88. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314143 ]
  2. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  1. Raman M, Ahmed I, Gillevet PM, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM, Smith S, Greenwood R, Sikaroodi M, Lam V, Crotty P, Bailey J, Myers RP, Rioux KP: Fecal microbiome and volatile organic compound metabolome in obese humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jul;11(7):868-75.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.02.015. Epub 2013 Feb 27. [PubMed:23454028 ]
Celiac disease
  1. Di Cagno R, De Angelis M, De Pasquale I, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, Ricciuti P, Gagliardi F, Laghi L, Crecchio C, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Oct 4;11:219. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219. [PubMed:21970810 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB011930
KNApSAcK IDC00050437
Chemspider ID630
KEGG Compound IDC00741
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDiacetyl
METLIN ID6921
PubChem Compound650
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16583
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDDIACT
MarkerDB IDMDB00029868
Good Scents IDrw1014611
References
Synthesis ReferenceXu, Ping; Chen, Hong; Du, Yi; Chen, Wanqiu; Xiao, Zijun. Method of preparation diacetyl by oxidization. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2005), 6 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Mehta RC, Hogan TF, Mardmomen S, Ma JK: Chromatographic studies of mitomycin C degradation in albumin microspheres. J Chromatogr. 1988 Sep 9;430(2):341-9. [PubMed:3148622 ]
  2. Hayes BK, Varki A: O-acetylation and de-O-acetylation of sialic acids. Sialic acid esterases of diverse evolutionary origins have serine active sites and essential arginine residues. J Biol Chem. 1989 Nov 15;264(32):19443-8. [PubMed:2509478 ]
  3. Lombardo D, Campese D, Multigner L, Lafont H, De Caro A: On the probable involvement of arginine residues in the bile-salt-binding site of human pancreatic carboxylic ester hydrolase. Eur J Biochem. 1983 Jun 15;133(2):327-33. [PubMed:6852044 ]
  4. Espinosa-Mansilla A, Duran-Meras I, Salinas F: High-performance liquid chromatographic-fluorometric determination of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl in urine by prederivatization to pteridinic rings. Anal Biochem. 1998 Jan 15;255(2):263-73. [PubMed:9451513 ]
  5. Ostap EM: 2,3-Butanedione monoxime (BDM) as a myosin inhibitor. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2002;23(4):305-8. [PubMed:12630704 ]
  6. Sokolchik I, Tanabe T, Baldi PF, Sze JY: Polymodal sensory function of the Caenorhabditis elegans OCR-2 channel arises from distinct intrinsic determinants within the protein and is selectively conserved in mammalian TRPV proteins. J Neurosci. 2005 Jan 26;25(4):1015-23. [PubMed:15673683 ]
  7. Sohaskey CD, Barbour AG: Esterases in serum-containing growth media counteract chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Mar;43(3):655-60. [PubMed:10049283 ]
  8. Peretti E, Karlaganis G, Lauterburg BH: Acetylation of acetylhydrazine, the toxic metabolite of isoniazid, in humans. Inhibition by concomitant administration of isoniazid. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Nov;243(2):686-9. [PubMed:3681700 ]