Hmdb loader
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-13 03:12:33 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:49:19 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0003681
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0006238
  • HMDB0060265
  • HMDB03681
  • HMDB06238
  • HMDB60265
Metabolite Identification
Common Name4-Acetamidobutanoic acid
Description4-Acetamidobutanoic acid, also known as 4-acetamidobutanoate or N-acetyl-4-aminobutyric acid, is a member of the class of compounds known as gamma amino acids and derivatives. These compounds are amino acids having an -NH2 group attached to the gamma carbon atom. 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid is soluble in water. 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid can be found in a number of food items such as Rubus species (blackberry, raspberry), cassava, pepper (Capsicum frutescens), and napa cabbage, which makes 4-acetamidobutanoic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these food products. 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid can be found in blood, feces, and urine, as well as in human prostate tissue. 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid exists in all eukaryotes, ranging from yeast to humans. 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid is a GABA derivative, a product of the urea cycle and the metabolism of amino groups, and the product of NAD-linked aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) (KEGG).
Structure
Data?1582752286
Synonyms
ValueSource
4-Acetamidobutyric acidChEBI
N-Acetyl-4-aminobutanoic acidChEBI
N-Acetyl-4-aminobutyric acidChEBI
N4-Acetylaminobutanoic acidChEBI
N4-AcetylaminobutanoateKegg
4-AcetamidobutyrateGenerator
N-Acetyl-4-aminobutanoateGenerator
N-Acetyl-4-aminobutyrateGenerator
4-AcetamidobutanoateGenerator
4-(Acetylamino)butanoateHMDB
4-(Acetylamino)butanoic acidHMDB
N-Acetyl-gabaHMDB
N-Acetyl-gamma-amino-N-butyric acidHMDB
N-Acetyl-gamma-aminobutyrateHMDB
4-Acetamidobutanoic acidGenerator
Chemical FormulaC6H11NO3
Average Molecular Weight145.1564
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight145.073893223
IUPAC Name4-acetamidobutanoic acid
Traditional Name4-acetamidobutyrate
CAS Registry Number3025-96-5
SMILES
CC(=O)NCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H11NO3/c1-5(8)7-4-2-3-6(9)10/h2-4H2,1H3,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)
InChI KeyUZTFMUBKZQVKLK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gamma amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the gamma carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentGamma amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Gamma amino acid or derivatives
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

Adduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
[M-H]-Baker134.65330932474
[M-H]-Not Available132.6http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00001765
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility19.9 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.48ALOGPS
logP-0.8ChemAxon
logS-0.86ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.49ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.4 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity34.9 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability14.8 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+130.91431661259
DarkChem[M-H]-125.76731661259
DeepCCS[M+H]+129.22630932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-125.87330932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-162.44230932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+137.78930932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
4-Acetamidobutanoic acidCC(=O)NCCCC(O)=O2371.2Standard polar33892256
4-Acetamidobutanoic acidCC(=O)NCCCC(O)=O1489.6Standard non polar33892256
4-Acetamidobutanoic acidCC(=O)NCCCC(O)=O1505.0Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
4-Acetamidobutanoic acid,1TMS,isomer #1CC(=O)NCCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C1497.6Semi standard non polar33892256
4-Acetamidobutanoic acid,1TMS,isomer #2CC(=O)N(CCCC(=O)O)[Si](C)(C)C1520.8Semi standard non polar33892256
4-Acetamidobutanoic acid,2TMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N(CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C1532.3Semi standard non polar33892256
4-Acetamidobutanoic acid,2TMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N(CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C1567.4Standard non polar33892256
4-Acetamidobutanoic acid,2TMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N(CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C1693.8Standard polar33892256
4-Acetamidobutanoic acid,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=O)NCCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1758.4Semi standard non polar33892256
4-Acetamidobutanoic acid,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC(=O)N(CCCC(=O)O)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1730.9Semi standard non polar33892256
4-Acetamidobutanoic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N(CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1986.5Semi standard non polar33892256
4-Acetamidobutanoic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N(CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2002.2Standard non polar33892256
4-Acetamidobutanoic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N(CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1952.9Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0ab9-5910000000-616492abfabb6439af402014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-000i-8900000000-9c41d4816e53d2df16962014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ab9-5910000000-616492abfabb6439af402017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-8900000000-9c41d4816e53d2df16962017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ab9-5910000000-616492abfabb6439af402017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-8900000000-9c41d4816e53d2df16962017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-5bd8cc559b90a64af1a42017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-5910000000-392be10f3144349f09342017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-1d251bd6acc9a96560322016-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-006x-9200000000-801b38a728ac351762e32017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid , negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-1900000000-2b55924041c3b349dcb92017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid , positive-QTOFsplash10-000j-0900000000-9b0713f455b5092ea5b02017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-e5fde6eaebd01f451c7f2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-3900000000-3972b9ef14264b4295202021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0zfr-9400000000-d95f6a6ba1204f161f792021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-2c0aea728a176600d0f72021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 35V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-f951bf26c46355051dcd2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0f6x-9000000000-e7ff97e64796256818b92021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 30V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0zfu-9000000000-8470fa62694d42f7cf462021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-32674c3224c62b6749b72021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 0V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-52e05e0b0cc738581e022021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-9400000000-fa598256216f3a773f852021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 35V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-503de5ea2b9646670b332021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-d076eacb831ac2756c002021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 35V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-1900000000-7dee9dd60cf632b0bd8a2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udl-9000000000-5fbb7042c8be53d56fcd2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-3900000000-6094e06c5cf1fdd7227e2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 35V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-25f48ea2b441b3bed6532021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 30V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0007-9000000000-bb39013f9bdb183b52b42021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004r-4900000000-61610846c38b08a1c3622015-04-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9300000000-34ef78b671c3a4979c552015-04-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-979b40d7d5bb3012fba32015-04-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0f6x-2900000000-a4f5296fa5b6b44393562015-04-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0pdl-8900000000-08e05706af59b90ee5ae2015-04-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-052f-9000000000-7586f2859664a58f822d2015-04-25Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.5 (0.0-1.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.03 (0.0-0.065) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB023214
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID17180
KEGG Compound IDC02946
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID1446095
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound18189
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17645
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH ID4AABUTN
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Thiele I, Swainston N, Fleming RM, Hoppe A, Sahoo S, Aurich MK, Haraldsdottir H, Mo ML, Rolfsson O, Stobbe MD, Thorleifsson SG, Agren R, Bolling C, Bordel S, Chavali AK, Dobson P, Dunn WB, Endler L, Hala D, Hucka M, Hull D, Jameson D, Jamshidi N, Jonsson JJ, Juty N, Keating S, Nookaew I, Le Novere N, Malys N, Mazein A, Papin JA, Price ND, Selkov E Sr, Sigurdsson MI, Simeonidis E, Sonnenschein N, Smallbone K, Sorokin A, van Beek JH, Weichart D, Goryanin I, Nielsen J, Westerhoff HV, Kell DB, Mendes P, Palsson BO: A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 May;31(5):419-25. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2488. Epub 2013 Mar 3. [PubMed:23455439 ]
  3. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular weight:
56291.485
Reactions
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Involved in lysine catabolism.
Gene Name:
ALDH7A1
Uniprot ID:
P49419
Molecular weight:
58486.74
Reactions
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID:
P47895
Molecular weight:
56107.995
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH2
Uniprot ID:
P05091
Molecular weight:
56380.93
Reactions
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Active on a variety of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes between 6 and 24 carbons in length. Responsible for conversion of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degradation product hexadecenal to hexadecenoic acid.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A2
Uniprot ID:
P51648
Molecular weight:
54847.36
Reactions
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH1B1
Uniprot ID:
P30837
Molecular weight:
57248.96
Reactions
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails