Survey with prize
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-13 12:51:40 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:24:59 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB04138
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGold
DescriptionGold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from the Latin aurum) and atomic number 79. It is a highly sought-after precious metal which, for many centuries, has been used as money, a store of value and in jewelery. The metal occurs as nuggets or grains in rocks, underground "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the coinage metals. Gold is dense, soft, shiny and the most malleable and ductile of the known metals. Pure gold has an attractive bright yellow color. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. There is increasing documentation of allergic contact dermatitis and other effects from gold jewelry, gold dental restorations, and gold implants. These effects were especially pronounced among females wearing body-piercing gold objects. One estimate of the prevalence of gold allergy worldwide is 13%, as judged by patch tests with monovalent organogold salts. Eczema of the head and neck was the most common response of individuals hypersensitive to gold, and sensitivity can last for at least several years. Ingestion of beverages containing flake gold can result in allergic-type reactions similar to those seen in gold-allergic individuals exposed to gold through dermal contact and other routes. Studies with small laboratory mammals and injected doses of colloidal gold showed increased body temperatures, accumulations in reticular cells, and dose enhancement in tumor therapy; gold implants were associated with tissue injuries. It is proposed that Au degrees toxicity to mammals is associated, in part, with formation of the more reactive Au+ and Au3+ species. Contact allergy to gold as demonstrated by patch testing is very common among patients with eczematous disease and seems to be even more frequent among patients with complaints from the oral cavity. There is a positive correlation between gold allergy and the presence of dental gold. Gold allergy is often found in patients with non-specific stomatitides as well as in those with lichenoid reactions or with only subjective symptoms from the oral cavity. The therapeutic effect of substituting other dental materials for gold alloys is conspicuous in casuistic reports but less impressive in larger patient materials. The amount of dental gold is correlated qualitatively and quantitatively to the blood level of gold and the effects if any of circulating blood gold are unknown. There is clearly a need for prospective studies in the field and gold sodium thiosulfate is considered an important item in the dental series for patch testing. (PMID: 15258315 , 12423401 ).
Gold, ion(1+)ChEBI
Au gold powderHMDB
Aurum metallicumHMDB
Burnish goldHMDB
Gold colloidalHMDB
Gold elementalHMDB
Gold flakeHMDB
Gold leafHMDB
Magnesium gold purpleHMDB
Shell goldHMDB
Chemical FormulaAu
Average Molecular Weight196.9666
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight196.966551609
IUPAC Namegold(1+) ion
Traditional Namegold(1+) ion
CAS Registry Number7440-57-5
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
  • Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:

Biological location:


Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point1064 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-d886ab3ee35928854b05Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-d886ab3ee35928854b05Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-d886ab3ee35928854b05Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-2613b750272dd2ffd73bSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-2613b750272dd2ffd73bSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-2613b750272dd2ffd73bSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00024 +/- 0.00026 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.60 +/- 0.063 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.002 (0.0004 - 0.006) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0000037 +/- 0.0000084 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB016246
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID102884
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGold
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound114945
ChEBI ID49482
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Eisler R: Mammalian sensitivity to elemental gold (Au degrees). Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004 Jul;100(1):1-18. [PubMed:15258315 ]
  2. Moller H: Dental gold alloys and contact allergy. Contact Dermatitis. 2002 Aug;47(2):63-6. [PubMed:12423401 ]