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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-24 14:41:17 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:25:15 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0004827
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB04827
Metabolite Identification
Common NameProline betaine
DescriptionProline betaine, also known as stachydrine or dimethylproline, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as proline and derivatives. Proline and derivatives are compounds containing proline or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of proline at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom. Proline betaine is a biomarker for the consumption of citrus fruits. Proline betaine is a moderately acidic compound (based on its pKa). Proline betaine exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Outside of the human body, Proline betaine is found, on average, in the highest concentration within capers. Proline betaine has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as spelts, sweet oranges, annual wild rices, oats, and tartary buckwheats. This could make proline betaine a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Elevated levels of proline betaine in human urine are found after the consumption of citrus fruits and juices (PMID: 18060588 ). Proline betaine is a glycine betaine analogue found in many citrus foods. Proline betaine is an osmoprotective compound found in urine. It is thought to serve an osmoprotective role for the kidney.
Structure
Data?1582752315
Synonyms
ValueSource
(S)-2-Carboxylato-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidiniumChEBI
N,N-Dimethyl-L-prolineChEBI
StachydrineChEBI
L-Proline betaineKegg
DimethylprolineHMDB
Stachydrine chloride, (S)-isomerHMDB
Stachydrine chlorideHMDB
Stachydrine, (+-)-isomerHMDB
(2S)-2-Carboxy-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidiniumHMDB
(S)-2-Carboxy-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidiniumHMDB
HomostachydrineHMDB
Prestwick-08g03HMDB
Proline betaineChEBI
Chemical FormulaC7H13NO2
Average Molecular Weight143.1836
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight143.094628665
IUPAC Name(2S)-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidin-1-ium-2-carboxylate
Traditional Namestachydrine
CAS Registry Number471-87-4
SMILES
C[N+]1(C)CCC[C@H]1C([O-])=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H13NO2/c1-8(2)5-3-4-6(8)7(9)10/h6H,3-5H2,1-2H3/t6-/m0/s1
InChI KeyCMUNUTVVOOHQPW-LURJTMIESA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as proline and derivatives. Proline and derivatives are compounds containing proline or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of proline at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentProline and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Proline or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • N-alkylpyrrolidine
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic salt
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Source:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.67 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.2ALOGPS
logP-3.9ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.26ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.13 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity60.11 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.05 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-002e-9000000000-36bbb91342358293711aSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-0900000000-ea4782d2282bc28329c0Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0007-4900000000-75a3b0df6adc0100b9feSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0aou-9000000000-5df24b6079668b584f79Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-34921bec4b2fad07f505Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-3900000000-da3a14fcb5a4909b775eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-000f-9000000000-7b04a861eee46ac86b66Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Placenta
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified10.0 (0.0-50.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.3 (0.8-4.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.7 (1.645-23.7) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal adenoma
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal adenoma
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal adenoma
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal adenoma
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB04284
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB000463
KNApSAcK IDC00002074
Chemspider ID103115
KEGG Compound IDC10172
BioCyc IDCPD-821
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID7089
PubChem Compound115244
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID35280
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Le Rudulier D, Bernard T, Goas G, Hamelin J: Osmoregulation in Klebsiella pneumoniae: enhancement of anaerobic growth and nitrogen fixation under stress by proline betaine, gamma-butyrobetaine, and other related compounds. Can J Microbiol. 1984 Mar;30(3):299-305. [PubMed:6372974 ]
  2. Chambers ST, Kunin CM: Isolation of glycine betaine and proline betaine from human urine. Assessment of their role as osmoprotective agents for bacteria and the kidney. J Clin Invest. 1987 Mar;79(3):731-7. [PubMed:3546377 ]
  3. Lever M, Sizeland PC, Bason LM, Hayman CM, Chambers ST: Glycine betaine and proline betaine in human blood and urine. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Aug 18;1200(3):259-64. [PubMed:8068711 ]
  4. Atkinson W, Downer P, Lever M, Chambers ST, George PM: Effects of orange juice and proline betaine on glycine betaine and homocysteine in healthy male subjects. Eur J Nutr. 2007 Dec;46(8):446-52. Epub 2007 Dec 4. [PubMed:18060588 ]
  5. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]