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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-06-12 22:34:39 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0004876
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB04876
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLacCer(d18:1/25:0)
DescriptionLacCer(d18:1/25:0) is a lactosylceramide or LacCer. Lactosylceramides are the most important and abundant of the diosylceramides. Lactosylceramides (LacCer) were originally called 'cytolipin H'. It is found in small amounts only in most animal tissues, but it has a number of significant biological functions and it is of great importance as the biosynthetic precursor of most of the neutral oligoglycosylceramides, sulfatides and gangliosides. In animal tissues, biosynthesis of lactosylceramide involves addition of the second monosaccharides unit (galactose) as its nucleotide derivative to monoglucosylceramide, catalysed by a specific beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase on the lumenal side of the Golgi apparatus. The glucosylceramide precursor must first cross from the cytosolic side of the membrane, possibly via the action of a flippase. The lactosylceramide produced can be further glycosylated or transferred to the plasma membrane. Lactosylceramide may assist in stabilizing the plasma membrane and activating receptor molecules in the special micro-domains or rafts, as with the cerebrosides. It may also have its own specialized function in the immunological system in that it is known to bind to specific bacteria. In addition, it is believed that a number of pro-inflammatory factors activate lactosylceramide synthase to generate lactosylceramide, which in turn activates "oxygen-sensitive" signalling pathways that affect such cellular processes as proliferation, adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Dysfunctions in these pathways can affect several diseases of the cardiovascular system, cancer and inflammatory states, so lactosylceramide metabolism is a potential target for new therapeutic treatments. beta-D-Galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide is the second to last step in the synthesis of N-Acylsphingosine and is converted. from Glucosylceramide via the enzyme beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 6(EC:2.4.1.-). It can be converted to Glucosylceramide via the enzyme beta-galactosidase (EC:3.2.1.23).
Structure
Data?1592001279
Synonyms
ValueSource
N-[(2S,3R,4E)-1-{[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-{[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxyoctadec-4-en-2-yl]pentacosanimidateGenerator
LacCer d18:1/25:0HMDB
LacCer(d18:1/25:0)HMDB
Lactosylceramide (d18:1,C25:0)HMDB
Lactosylceramide (d18:1/25:0)HMDB
Lactosylceramide(d18:1/25:0)HMDB
Chemical FormulaC55H105NO13
Average Molecular Weight988.439
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight987.758592445
IUPAC NameN-[(2S,3R,4E)-1-{[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-{[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxyoctadec-4-en-2-yl]pentacosanamide
Traditional NameN-[(2S,3R,4E)-1-{[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-{[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxyoctadec-4-en-2-yl]pentacosanamide
CAS Registry Number2066483-64-3
SMILES
[H][C@@](CO[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[C@]2([H])O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]2O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O)(NC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC)[C@H](O)\C=C\CCCCCCCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C55H105NO13/c1-3-5-7-9-11-13-15-17-18-19-20-21-22-23-24-25-27-29-31-33-35-37-39-47(60)56-43(44(59)38-36-34-32-30-28-26-16-14-12-10-8-6-4-2)42-66-54-52(65)50(63)53(46(41-58)68-54)69-55-51(64)49(62)48(61)45(40-57)67-55/h36,38,43-46,48-55,57-59,61-65H,3-35,37,39-42H2,1-2H3,(H,56,60)/b38-36+/t43-,44+,45+,46+,48-,49-,50+,51+,52+,53+,54+,55-/m0/s1
InChI KeyWPIHMWBQRSAMDE-WQCHUFMUSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Ontology
Physiological effect

Organoleptic effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0Not Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0019 g/LALOGPS
logP7.55ALOGPS
logP11.32ChemAxon
logS-5.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.92ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count13ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count9ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area227.86 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count45ChemAxon
Refractivity272.01 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability122.7 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Brain
  • Fibroblasts
  • Neuron
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB023469
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID59651474
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem CompoundNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNicolaou, K. C.; Caulfield, T.; Kataoka, H.; Kumazawa, T. A practical and enantioselective synthesis of glycosphingolipids and related compounds. Total synthesis of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Journal of the American Chemical Society (1988), 110(23), 791
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Moore RM, Silver RJ, Moore JJ: Physiological apoptotic agents have different effects upon human amnion epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Placenta. 2003 Feb-Mar;24(2-3):173-80. [PubMed:12566244 ]
  2. Prinetti A, Basso L, Appierto V, Villani MG, Valsecchi M, Loberto N, Prioni S, Chigorno V, Cavadini E, Formelli F, Sonnino S: Altered sphingolipid metabolism in N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide-resistant A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 21;278(8):5574-83. Epub 2002 Dec 16. [PubMed:12486134 ]
  3. Furukawa K, Takamiya K, Furukawa K: Beta1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase--GM2/GD2 synthase: a key enzyme to control the synthesis of brain-enriched complex gangliosides. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Dec 19;1573(3):356-62. [PubMed:12417418 ]
  4. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [PubMed:12829005 ]
  5. Choudhury A, Dominguez M, Puri V, Sharma DK, Narita K, Wheatley CL, Marks DL, Pagano RE: Rab proteins mediate Golgi transport of caveola-internalized glycosphingolipids and correct lipid trafficking in Niemann-Pick C cells. J Clin Invest. 2002 Jun;109(12):1541-50. [PubMed:12070301 ]
  6. Ledvinova J, Poupetova H, Hanackova A, Pisacka M, Elleder M: Blood group B glycosphingolipids in alpha-galactosidase deficiency (Fabry disease): influence of secretor status. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 Apr 1;1345(2):180-7. [PubMed:9106497 ]
  7. Hulkova H, Ledvinova J, Asfaw B, Koubek K, Kopriva K, Elleder M: Lactosylceramide in lysosomal storage disorders: a comparative immunohistochemical and biochemical study. Virchows Arch. 2005 Jul;447(1):31-44. Epub 2005 May 26. [PubMed:15918012 ]
  8. Komagome R, Sawa H, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y, Tanaka S, Atwood WJ, Nagashima K: Oligosaccharides as receptors for JC virus. J Virol. 2002 Dec;76(24):12992-3000. [PubMed:12438625 ]
  9. Sharma DK, Brown JC, Cheng Z, Holicky EL, Marks DL, Pagano RE: The glycosphingolipid, lactosylceramide, regulates beta1-integrin clustering and endocytosis. Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;65(18):8233-41. [PubMed:16166299 ]
  10. Takizawa M, Nomura T, Wakisaka E, Yoshizuka N, Aoki J, Arai H, Inoue K, Hattori M, Matsuo N: cDNA cloning and expression of human lactosylceramide synthase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 May 18;1438(2):301-4. [PubMed:10320813 ]
  11. Sala G, Dupre T, Seta N, Codogno P, Ghidoni R: Increased biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids in congenital disorder of glycosylation Ia (CDG-Ia) fibroblasts. Pediatr Res. 2002 Nov;52(5):645-51. [PubMed:12409508 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 72 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in galactosylceramidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the galactose ester bonds of galactosylceramide, galactosylsphingosine, lactosylceramide, and monogalactosyldiglyceride. Enzyme with very low activity responsible for the lysosomal catabolism of galactosylceramide, a major lipid in myelin, kidney and epithelial cells of small intestine and colon.
Gene Name:
GALC
Uniprot ID:
P54803
Molecular weight:
77062.86
General function:
Involved in exo-alpha-sialidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes sialylated compounds.
Gene Name:
NEU2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y3R4
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in exo-alpha-sialidase activity
Specific function:
May function in lysosomal catabolism of sialylated glycoconjugates. Has sialidase activity towards synthetic substrates, such as 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4-MU-NANA or 4MU-NeuAc). Has a broad substrate specificity being active on glycoproteins, oligosaccharides and sialylated glycolipids.
Gene Name:
NEU4
Uniprot ID:
Q8WWR8
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in exo-alpha-sialidase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the removal of sialic acid (N-acetylneuramic acid) moities from glycoproteins and glycolipids. To be active, it is strictly dependent on its presence in the multienzyme complex. Appears to have a preference for alpha 2-3 and alpha 2-6 sialyl linkage.
Gene Name:
NEU1
Uniprot ID:
Q99519
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
PIGL
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2B2
Molecular weight:
28530.965
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLA
Uniprot ID:
P06280
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in sialyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of ganglioside GM3 (alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1, 4-beta-D-glucosylceramide).
Gene Name:
ST3GAL5
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNP4
Molecular weight:
45584.69
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activities toward 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphocholine and 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphoglycerol. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have lost catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
SMPD1
Uniprot ID:
P17405
Molecular weight:
69935.53

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 72 proteins in total.