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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-10-25 11:03:23 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:47:03 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0005083
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB05083
Metabolite Identification
Common Name8-Isoprostaglandin F2a
Description8-Isoprostaglandin F2a is an isoprostane and a potent renal vasoconstrictor. Isoprostanes are prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced in vivo in humans by a noncyclooxygenase mechanism involving free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid. The formation of these prostanoids proceeds through bicyclic endoperoxide intermediates that are then reduced to form ring isoprostanes. Of considerable interest is that, in contradistinction to cyclooxygenase-derived prostaglandins, isoprostanes have been shown to be initially formed in situ, esterified to phospholipids, and subsequently released preformed, presumably by phospholipases. The fact that prostanoids are produced in vivo by a noncyclooxygenase mechanism is of considerable interest from a biochemical perspective. However, this may also be associated with biological ramifications since it has been shown that these compounds are capable of exerting potent biological activity. (PMID: 7825845 , 17012140 ). Prostaglandins are eicosanoids. The eicosanoids consist of the prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes (TXs), leukotrienes (LTs), and lipoxins (LXs). The PGs and TXs are collectively identified as prostanoids. Prostaglandins were originally shown to be synthesized in the prostate gland, thromboxanes from platelets (thrombocytes), and leukotrienes from leukocytes, hence the derivation of their names. All mammalian cells except erythrocytes synthesize eicosanoids. These molecules are extremely potent, able to cause profound physiological effects at very dilute concentrations. All eicosanoids function locally at the site of synthesis, through receptor-mediated G-protein linked signalling pathways. 8-iso-prostaglandin F2A is a biomarker for the consumption of offal meat.
Structure
Data?1582752344
Synonyms
ValueSource
8-Epi-PGF2alphaChEBI
8-Epiprostaglandin F2alphaChEBI
8-Iso-PGF2aChEBI
8-Iso-PGF2alphaChEBI
8-Iso-PGF2alpha-IIIChEBI
8-IsoPChEBI
8-Isoprostaglandin F2alphaChEBI
8-IsoprostaneChEBI
9,11,15-Trihydroxy-prosta-5,13-dien-1-Oic acidChEBI
8-Epi-prostaglandin F2alphaKegg
8-Epi-PGF2aGenerator
8-Epi-PGF2αGenerator
8-Epiprostaglandin F2aGenerator
8-Epiprostaglandin F2αGenerator
8-Iso-PGF2αGenerator
8-Iso-PGF2a-IIIGenerator
8-Iso-PGF2α-IIIGenerator
8-Isoprostaglandin F2αGenerator
9,11,15-Trihydroxy-prosta-5,13-dien-1-OateGenerator
8-Epi-prostaglandin F2aGenerator
8-Epi-prostaglandin F2αGenerator
(5Z,13E,15S)-9alpha,11alpha,15-Trihydroxy-8beta-prosta-5,13-dien-1-OateHMDB
(5Z,13E,15S)-9alpha,11alpha,15-Trihydroxy-8beta-prosta-5,13-dien-1-Oic acidHMDB
8-Epi PGF-2alphaHMDB
9,11,15-Trihydroxy prosta-5,13-dien-1-OateHMDB
9,11,15-Trihydroxy prosta-5,13-dien-1-Oic acidHMDB
9S,11R,15S-Trihydroxy-5Z,13E-prostadienoateHMDB
9S,11R,15S-Trihydroxy-5Z,13E-prostadienoic acidHMDB
9S,11R,15S-Trihydroxy-5Z,13E-prostadienoic acid-cyclo[8S,12R]HMDB
15-F(2t)-IsoPHMDB
15-F(2t)-IsoprostaneHMDB
8-F(2t)-IsoprostaneHMDB
8-Epi-PGF2 alphaHMDB
8-Iso-PGF(2alpha)HMDB
Isoprostaglandin F2alpha type-IIIHMDB
15-F2t-IsoPHMDB
15-F2t-IsoprostaneHMDB
8-Isoprostaglandin F2aGenerator
Chemical FormulaC20H34O5
Average Molecular Weight354.481
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight354.240624198
IUPAC Name(5Z)-7-[(1S,2R,3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]cyclopentyl]hept-5-enoic acid
Traditional Name8-isoprostane
CAS Registry Number27415-26-5
SMILES
CCCCC[C@H](O)\C=C\[C@H]1[C@H](O)C[C@H](O)[C@H]1C\C=C/CCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C20H34O5/c1-2-3-6-9-15(21)12-13-17-16(18(22)14-19(17)23)10-7-4-5-8-11-20(24)25/h4,7,12-13,15-19,21-23H,2-3,5-6,8-11,14H2,1H3,(H,24,25)/b7-4-,13-12+/t15-,16-,17+,18-,19+/m0/s1
InChI KeyPXGPLTODNUVGFL-NAPLMKITSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as prostaglandins and related compounds. These are unsaturated carboxylic acids consisting of a 20 carbon skeleton that also contains a five member ring, and are based upon the fatty acid arachidonic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassEicosanoids
Direct ParentProstaglandins and related compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Prostaglandin skeleton
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Cyclopentanol
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP2.183Not Available
Experimental Chromatographic Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

Adduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
[M-H]-Not Available197.255http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00001873
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.12 g/LALOGPS
logP10(3.11) g/LALOGPS
logP10(2.61) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-3.5) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.36ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area97.99 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity100.47 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability41.71 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+187.12131661259
DarkChem[M-H]-190.84331661259

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
8-Isoprostaglandin F2aCCCCC[C@H](O)\C=C\[C@H]1[C@H](O)C[C@H](O)[C@H]1C\C=C/CCCC(O)=O4461.2Standard polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2aCCCCC[C@H](O)\C=C\[C@H]1[C@H](O)C[C@H](O)[C@H]1C\C=C/CCCC(O)=O2708.1Standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2aCCCCC[C@H](O)\C=C\[C@H]1[C@H](O)C[C@H](O)[C@H]1C\C=C/CCCC(O)=O2924.5Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,1TMS,isomer #1CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O)O[Si](C)(C)C2883.7Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,1TMS,isomer #2CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C2784.6Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,1TMS,isomer #3CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O2765.8Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,1TMS,isomer #4CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O2816.1Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,2TMS,isomer #1CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O)O[Si](C)(C)C2827.9Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,2TMS,isomer #2CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O)O[Si](C)(C)C2746.0Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,2TMS,isomer #3CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C2755.7Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,2TMS,isomer #4CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C2762.8Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,2TMS,isomer #5CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C2750.7Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,2TMS,isomer #6CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O2742.2Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,3TMS,isomer #1CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O)O[Si](C)(C)C2730.6Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,3TMS,isomer #2CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C2744.9Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,3TMS,isomer #3CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C2718.1Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,3TMS,isomer #4CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C2713.7Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,4TMS,isomer #1CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C2746.0Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,1TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3139.4Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,1TBDMS,isomer #2CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2997.0Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,1TBDMS,isomer #3CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O2980.6Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,1TBDMS,isomer #4CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O3080.5Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,2TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3363.9Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,2TBDMS,isomer #2CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3232.7Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,2TBDMS,isomer #3CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3245.1Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,2TBDMS,isomer #4CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3243.4Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,2TBDMS,isomer #5CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3197.2Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,2TBDMS,isomer #6CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O3227.3Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,3TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3479.2Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,3TBDMS,isomer #2CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3490.6Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,3TBDMS,isomer #3CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3429.7Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,3TBDMS,isomer #4CCCCC[C@H](O)/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3432.6Semi standard non polar33892256
8-Isoprostaglandin F2a,4TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCC[C@@H](/C=C/[C@@H]1[C@H](C/C=C\CCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3625.0Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0019-6489000000-bf681ff653e664e9cde02017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a GC-MS (4 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-9100177000-79583ccaf34002541a282017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014r-0019000000-2c9767841fa4893c60b52016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-01bi-2297000000-8aa402b01c233708c42e2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0103-9170000000-b6c0e28782ad3916af752016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0019000000-43645725f77edc02f6082016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0f7c-1049000000-d2fc6ca599de8bc5b9a52016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-9611000000-80d02fb42a0a241d8e2b2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014r-0019000000-ece58dc4c35634d7fe3f2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-9255000000-c6aef7e365cba872a5582021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-05mo-9300000000-552900f74505f7605b0b2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0009000000-4f29fd22c6b0dfe3ac772021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udr-0098000000-06ede09931efe0fba78e2021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 8-Isoprostaglandin F2a 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00el-9182000000-f1a4c9aba7f705d2868d2021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000957 +/- 0.00102 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000079 +/- 0.0000096 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00057 +/- 0.000057 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00038 +/- 0.000048 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000151 +/- 0.000018 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.000003 +/- 0 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.000003 +/- 0.000003 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00027 +/- 0.00011 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00022 +/- 0.000019 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00018 +/- 0.000059 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00019 +/- 0.0001 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB023622
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4445435
KEGG Compound IDC13809
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5282263
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID34505
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Roberts LJ 2nd, Morrow JD: Isoprostanes. Novel markers of endogenous lipid peroxidation and potential mediators of oxidant injury. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Nov 15;744:237-42. [PubMed:7825845 ]
  2. Berg K, Haaverstad R, Astudillo R, Bjorngaard M, Skarra S, Wiseth R, Basu S, Jynge P: Oxidative stress during coronary artery bypass operations: importance of surgical trauma and drug treatment. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2006 Oct;40(5):291-7. [PubMed:17012140 ]