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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:52 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:49:30 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0006116
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB06116
Metabolite Identification
Common Name3-Hydroxyhippuric acid
Description3-Hydroxyhippuric acid is an acyl glycine. Acyl glycines are normally minor metabolites of fatty acids. However, the excretion of certain acyl glycines is increased in several inborn errors of metabolism. In certain cases the measurement of these metabolites in body fluids can be used to diagnose disorders associated with mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. Acyl glycines are produced through the action of glycine N-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.13) which is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: acyl-CoA + glycine < -- > CoA + N-acylglycine. 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid is an organic acid found in normal human urine. 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid is a metabolite of rutin detected in urine after consumption of tomato juice (a source of rutin). 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid has its origin in dietary procyanidins (a major source of polyphenols consisting of elementary flavan-3-ol (epi)catechin units). 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid is a microbial aromatic acid metabolite derived from dietary polyphenols and flavonoids, found in normal human urine (PMID: 12592675 , 2338430 , 17015248 , 14556848 , 12742116 ). It is a marker of gut Clostridium species. Higher levels are associated with higher levels of Clostridia (PMID: 27123458 ).
Structure
Data?1582752374
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-[(3-Hydroxyphenyl)formamido]acetic acidChEBI
3-HydroxybenzoylglycineChEBI
2-[(3-Hydroxyphenyl)formamido]acetateGenerator
3-HydroxyhippateGenerator
3-Hydroxyhippic acidGenerator
3-HydroxyhippurateHMDB
m-HydroxyhippurateHMDB
m-Hydroxyhippuric acidHMDB
N-m-HydroxylbenzoylglycineHMDB
3-Hydroxyhippuric acidChEBI
m-HydroxyhippateGenerator, HMDB
m-Hydroxyhippic acidGenerator, HMDB
2-[(3-Hydroxybenzoyl)amino]acetic acidHMDB
3'-Hydroxyhippuric acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H9NO4
Average Molecular Weight195.1721
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight195.053157781
IUPAC Name2-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)formamido]acetic acid
Traditional Name3-hydroxyhippuric acid
CAS Registry Number1637-75-8
SMILES
OC(=O)CNC(=O)C1=CC=CC(O)=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H9NO4/c11-7-3-1-2-6(4-7)9(14)10-5-8(12)13/h1-4,11H,5H2,(H,10,14)(H,12,13)
InChI KeyXDOFWFNMYJRHEW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hippuric acids. Hippuric acids are compounds containing hippuric acid, which consists of a of a benzoyl group linked to the N-terminal of a glycine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentHippuric acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hippuric acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Benzoyl
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effectNot Available
Disposition
Biological locationSource
ProcessNot Available
Role
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point164 - 169 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP0.95HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.91 g/LALOGPS
logP0.52ALOGPS
logP0.22ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.25ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.63 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity48.1 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability18.51 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+143.67531661259
DarkChem[M-H]-139.18631661259
DeepCCS[M+H]+138.08730932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-135.50130932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-171.28330932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+146.15130932474
AllCCS[M+H]+141.832859911
AllCCS[M+H-H2O]+137.732859911
AllCCS[M+NH4]+145.632859911
AllCCS[M+Na]+146.632859911
AllCCS[M-H]-140.332859911
AllCCS[M+Na-2H]-140.932859911
AllCCS[M+HCOO]-141.632859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
3-Hydroxyhippuric acidOC(=O)CNC(=O)C1=CC=CC(O)=C13234.5Standard polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acidOC(=O)CNC(=O)C1=CC=CC(O)=C12000.7Standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acidOC(=O)CNC(=O)C1=CC=CC(O)=C12176.9Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,1TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CNC(=O)C1=CC=CC(O)=C12103.2Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,1TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=CC(C(=O)NCC(=O)O)=C12077.1Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,1TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)N(CC(=O)O)C(=O)C1=CC=CC(O)=C12081.5Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,2TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CNC(=O)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C12185.7Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,2TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CN(C(=O)C1=CC=CC(O)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C2083.4Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,2TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=CC(C(=O)N(CC(=O)O)[Si](C)(C)C)=C12079.0Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CN(C(=O)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C2093.4Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CN(C(=O)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C2074.5Standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CN(C(=O)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C2209.0Standard polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CNC(=O)C1=CC=CC(O)=C12352.4Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=CC(C(=O)NCC(=O)O)=C12336.3Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,1TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)N(CC(=O)O)C(=O)C1=CC=CC(O)=C12347.1Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CNC(=O)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C12693.8Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,2TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CN(C(=O)C1=CC=CC(O)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2580.4Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,2TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=CC(C(=O)N(CC(=O)O)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C12598.3Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CN(C(=O)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2791.5Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CN(C(=O)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2693.9Standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CN(C(=O)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2573.7Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-1900000000-49e4d27497eeeff458092017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-7982000000-7959bea2ab616ece87562017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udl-1900000000-dc85347d83766215a7b72021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9300000000-4d0f2ba79bccc743efd02021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9200000000-f1d71d9347520fec146c2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-1900000000-899450f53ef2c1cb3e4b2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0uk9-4900000000-0ce4cb09039d70fe8e8b2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00fr-9300000000-264f280344785775dc132016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-0900000000-caff5245d469f41c4da82016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-2900000000-8a379c794edd9eeb0a032016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-006x-9300000000-74897c8ed9e9ff09d06b2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00di-1900000000-c7da1e28001d3b60249f2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00di-2900000000-cc2fe6c05438067b7def2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014l-9100000000-a7e31e4050be2dac08762021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-7900000000-973fa316a4faa2fb85ec2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9200000000-feb5bed01fe869d8f2602021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-134764e2910be589b6f92021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot Available
Normal
      Not Available
details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 927 details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 927 details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 927 details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 927 details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNot Available details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.06 +/- 10.91 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.51-51.27 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 927 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 927 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 927 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 927 details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.7 ± 4.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.28 (0.1 - 6.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.5 (0.2 -5.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.1(4.1-7.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.4(5.7-9.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified19.604 +/- 13.104 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.247 +/- 12.596 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Hypertension (mild)
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Hypertension (mild)
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. Slae, M., Huynh, H., Wishart, D.S. (2014). Analysis of 30 normal pediatric urine samples via NMR spectroscopy (unpublished work). NA.
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB07069
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB023830
KNApSAcK IDC00052143
Chemspider ID396603
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound450268
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID70824
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceVan Brussel, W.; Van Sumere, C. F. N-Acylamino acids and peptides. VI. A simple synthesis of N-acylglycines of the benzoyl and cinnamyl type. Bulletin des Societes Chimiques Belges (1978), 87(10), 791-7.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Liebich HM, Forst C: Basic profiles of organic acids in urine. J Chromatogr. 1990 Jan 26;525(1):1-14. [PubMed:2338430 ]
  2. Rechner AR, Kuhnle G, Hu H, Roedig-Penman A, van den Braak MH, Moore KP, Rice-Evans CA: The metabolism of dietary polyphenols and the relevance to circulating levels of conjugated metabolites. Free Radic Res. 2002 Nov;36(11):1229-41. [PubMed:12592675 ]
  3. Jaganath IB, Mullen W, Edwards CA, Crozier A: The relative contribution of the small and large intestine to the absorption and metabolism of rutin in man. Free Radic Res. 2006 Oct;40(10):1035-46. [PubMed:17015248 ]
  4. Gonthier MP, Donovan JL, Texier O, Felgines C, Remesy C, Scalbert A: Metabolism of dietary procyanidins in rats. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003 Oct 15;35(8):837-44. [PubMed:14556848 ]
  5. Gonthier MP, Rios LY, Verny M, Remesy C, Scalbert A: Novel liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method for the quantification in human urine of microbial aromatic acid metabolites derived from dietary polyphenols. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jun 15;789(2):247-55. [PubMed:12742116 ]
  6. Xiong X, Liu D, Wang Y, Zeng T, Peng Y: Urinary 3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionic Acid, 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, and 3-Hydroxyhippuric Acid Are Elevated in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:9485412. doi: 10.1155/2016/9485412. Epub 2016 Mar 30. [PubMed:27123458 ]
  7. Koistinen VM (2019). Effects of Food Processing and Gut Microbial Metabolism on Whole Grain Phytochemicals: A Metabolomics Approach. In Publications of the University of Eastern Finland. Dissertations in Health Sciences., no 510 (pp. 26-58). University of Eastern Finland. [ISBN:978-952-61-3088-0 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, with a preference for benzoyl-CoA over phenylacetyl-CoA as acyl donors. Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
Gene Name:
GLYAT
Uniprot ID:
Q6IB77
Molecular weight:
18506.33
Reactions
3-Hydroxybenzoic acid → 3-Hydroxyhippuric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glutamine. Can use phenylacetyl-CoA as an acyl donor.
Gene Name:
GLYATL1
Uniprot ID:
Q969I3
Molecular weight:
35100.895
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine. Conjugates numerous substrates, such as arachidonoyl-CoA and saturated medium and long-chain acyl-CoAs ranging from chain-length C8:0-CoA to C18:0-CoA, to form a variety of N-acylglycines. Shows a preference for monounsaturated fatty acid oleoyl-CoA (C18:1-CoA) as an acyl donor. Does not exhibit any activity toward C22:6-CoA and chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA, nor toward serine or alanine.
Gene Name:
GLYATL2
Uniprot ID:
Q8WU03
Molecular weight:
34277.055
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N- terminus of glycine
Gene Name:
GLYATL3
Uniprot ID:
Q5SZD4
Molecular weight:
32703.3