Hmdb loader
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2009-04-06 16:22:43 UTC
Update Date2021-10-13 05:34:55 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0012308
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB12308
Metabolite Identification
Common NameVanillin
DescriptionVanillin, also known as vanillaldehyde or lioxin, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as methoxyphenols. Methoxyphenols are compounds containing a methoxy group attached to the benzene ring of a phenol moiety. It is used by the food industry as well as ethylvanillin. Vanillin exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Vanillin is a sweet, chocolate, and creamy tasting compound. Vanillin is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as corns, ryes, and sherries and in a lower concentration in beers, rums, and oats. Vanillin has also been detected, but not quantified, in several different foods, such as gooseberries, other bread, brazil nuts, shea tree, and ohelo berries. This could make vanillin a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Vanillin is a potentially toxic compound. Synthetic vanillin, instead of natural Vanillin extract, is sometimes used as a flavouring agent in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Vanillin is the primary component of the extract of the Vanillin bean. Because of the scarcity and expense of natural Vanillin extract, there has long been interest in the synthetic preparation of its predominant component. Artificial Vanillin flavoring is a solution of pure vanillin, usually of synthetic origin. Today, artificial vanillin is made from either guaiacol or from lignin, a constituent of wood which is a byproduct of the paper industry. The first commercial synthesis of vanillin began with the more readily available natural compound eugenol.
Structure
Data?1601245900
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehydeChEBI
4-Formyl-2-methoxyphenolChEBI
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehydeChEBI
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehydeChEBI
4-Hydroxy-m-anisaldehydeChEBI
Methylprotocatechuic aldehydeChEBI
p-Hydroxy-m-methoxybenzaldehydeChEBI
p-VanillinChEBI
VanilineChEBI
VanillaldehydeChEBI
Vanillic aldehydeChEBI
5-BromovanillinMeSH
5-ChlorovanillinMeSH
Vanillin, sodium saltMeSH
2-Methoxy-4-formylphenolHMDB
4-Hydroxy 3-methoxybenzaldehydeHMDB
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde-5-chlorovanillinHMDB
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (acd/name 4.0)HMDB
4-Hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehydeHMDB
LioxinHMDB
m-Methoxy-p-hydroxybenzaldehydeHMDB
Methyl-protocatechualdehydeHMDB
Methylprotcatechuic aldehydeHMDB
oleo-Resins vanillaHMDB
oleo-Resins vanilla-beanHMDB
Oleoresin vanillaHMDB
PropenylguaetholHMDB
Protocatechualdehyde 3-methyl etherHMDB
trans-2-Ethoxy-5-(1-propenyl)phenolHMDB
VanilinHMDB
VanillaHMDB
Vanilla oleoresinHMDB
Vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy- benzaldehyde)HMDB
Vanillin (natural)HMDB
Vanillin (NF)HMDB
Vanillin sodium saltHMDB
VanillineHMDB
ZimcoHMDB
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyldehydePhytoBank
VanillumPhytoBank
VanillinHMDB
Chemical FormulaC8H8O3
Average Molecular Weight152.1473
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight152.047344122
IUPAC Name4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde
Traditional Namevanillin
CAS Registry Number121-33-5
SMILES
COC1=CC(C=O)=CC=C1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H8O3/c1-11-8-4-6(5-9)2-3-7(8)10/h2-5,10H,1H3
InChI KeyMWOOGOJBHIARFG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as methoxyphenols. Methoxyphenols are compounds containing a methoxy group attached to the benzene ring of a phenol moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenols
Sub ClassMethoxyphenols
Direct ParentMethoxyphenols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Methoxyphenol
  • Hydroxybenzaldehyde
  • Anisole
  • Benzaldehyde
  • Benzoyl
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Aryl-aldehyde
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Ether
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aldehyde
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point81.5 °CNot Available
Boiling Point285.00 to 286.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility11 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP1.21HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental Spectral Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DeepCCS[M-H]-MetCCS_train_neg124.30130932474
DeepCCS[M+H]+MetCCS_train_pos129.68530932474
AllCCS[M-H]-Not Available124.301http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000308
AllCCS[M+H]+Not Available129.601http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000308
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.05 g/LALOGPS
logP10(1.31) g/LALOGPS
logP10(1.22) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-1.5) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.81ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity41.09 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability14.82 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+132.84731661259
DarkChem[M-H]-131.62231661259

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Vanillin,1TMS,#1COC1=CC(C=O)=CC=C1O[Si](C)(C)C1537.6Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Vanillin,1TBDMS,#1COC1=CC(C=O)=CC=C1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1797.0Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Vanillin EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-1900000000-46e0edb3260b8896145e2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Vanillin EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-7900000000-ee0a0ad1232fa889e5672017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Vanillin EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-9800000000-d8f749f48a78e7c9c3bf2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Vanillin GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-1960000000-b6678c7961ee7df779a12017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Vanillin EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-1900000000-46e0edb3260b8896145e2018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Vanillin EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-7900000000-ee0a0ad1232fa889e5672018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Vanillin EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-9800000000-d8f749f48a78e7c9c3bf2018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Vanillin GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-1960000000-b6678c7961ee7df779a12018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Vanillin GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fk9-1900000000-68ebbe847e88a001f8fa2016-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Vanillin GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05fr-7950000000-08c9e1cb0dbb3704f8ee2017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Vanillin GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0udi-5900000000-907c9684d5ac0386d5222014-09-20Not AvailableView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin DI-ESI-qTof , Positive-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-334e2cf1c60f75229fd12017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin DI-ESI-qTof , Negative-QTOFsplash10-0uy0-0900200200-4cbd13b45290ded181ee2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin LC-ESI-ITFT , negative-QTOFsplash10-0udr-0900000000-d67b08f1b4f6e90cd2702017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-1900000000-9fc5182650ced222b1a12021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-052b-9800000000-312c82e1fbcda8abeaf72021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 90V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4j-9700000000-c0da5ed12872161ea30e2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000l-5900000000-8c4d3cd8abfc264729a32021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00kf-9000000000-a9b7f966d85c30f6174c2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0900000000-d1e812bea83f6f84570d2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000f-7900000000-9d9283afc35603b0121c2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-9000000000-146c4b184605c821d8222021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00kf-9500000000-f5a8328127a89c12c19e2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 35V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-9000000000-44efadd4b0c1fe89c39c2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-9100000000-70cac2e87a3ecb4ec8672021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 15V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udr-0900000000-10b0539cab1169d8d8772021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 35V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0900000000-17943fa1f4f19dd4878a2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 30V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udr-0900000000-2e50ec52313e18cddbd02021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 45V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0f79-1900000000-98d502286eb47c703f642021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 75V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-052e-9800000000-03597a1112a480b91d5e2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-e949414f752aab5e96062015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-1dcee0be3ba8e1431a7c2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0ff9-9400000000-dcd0372357bd9c46926d2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-6cc5e0ed993af0b790e62015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-1900000000-cf1b6af77251971154f92015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Vanillin 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000l-9500000000-302ce8740fbb7b9295b92015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.298 +/- 0.902 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.764 +/- 0.869 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.976 +/- 0.971 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.309 +/- 3.765 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.951 +/- 0.92 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.375 +/- 0.91 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.468 +/- 0.815 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified28.258 +/- 24.808 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.362 +/- 0.053 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleAttachment loss  details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleMissing teeth details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MalePeriodontal Probing Depth details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Attachment loss
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Missing teeth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Periodontal Probing Depth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound ID724
FooDB IDFDB000838
KNApSAcK IDC00002683
Chemspider ID13860434
KEGG Compound IDC00755
BioCyc IDVANILLIN
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkVanillin
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound1183
PDB IDV55
ChEBI ID18346
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDrw1011712
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available