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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2009-11-30 15:50:56 UTC
Update Date2021-04-12 19:32:02 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0013205
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB13205
Metabolite Identification
Common Name9-Decenoylcarnitine
Description9-Decenoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. More specifically, it is an 9-decenoic acid ester of carnitine. Acylcarnitines were first discovered more than 70 year ago (PMID: 13825279 ). It is believed that there are more than 1000 types of acylcarnitines in the human body. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups (organic acids and fatty acids) from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy.  This process is known as beta-oxidation. According to a recent review [Dambrova et al. 2021, Physiological Reviews], acylcarnitines (ACs) can be classified into 9 different categories depending on the type and size of their acyl-group: 1) short-chain ACs; 2) medium-chain ACs; 3) long-chain ACs; 4) very long-chain ACs; 5) hydroxy ACs; 6) branched chain ACs; 7) unsaturated ACs; 8) dicarboxylic ACs and 9) miscellaneous ACs. Short-chain ACs have acyl-groups with two to five carbons (C2-C5), medium-chain ACs have acyl-groups with six to thirteen carbons (C6-C13), long-chain ACs have acyl-groups with fourteen to twenty once carbons (C14-C21) and very long-chain ACs have acyl groups with more than 22 carbons. 9-Decenoylcarnitine is therefore classified as a medium chain AC. As a medium-chain acylcarnitine 9-decenoylcarnitine is somewhat less abundant than short-chain acylcarnitines. These are formed either through esterification with L-carnitine or through the peroxisomal metabolism of longer chain acylcarnitines (PMID: 30540494 ). Many medium-chain acylcarnitines can serve as useful markers for inherited disorders of fatty acid metabolism. In particular 9-decenoylcarnitine is elevated in the blood or plasma of individuals with overweight (PMID: 30322392 ). It is also decreased in the blood or plasma of individuals with schizophrenia (PMID: 31161852 ) and familial mediterranean fever (PMID: 29900937 ). Carnitine octanoyltransferase (CrOT, EC:2.3.1.137) is responsible for the synthesis of all medium-chain (MCAC, C5-C12) and medium-length branched-chain acylcarnitines in peroxisomes (PMID: 10486279 ). The study of acylcarnitines is an active area of research and it is likely that many novel acylcarnitines will be discovered in the coming years. It is also likely that many novel roles in health and disease will be uncovered. An excellent review of the current state of knowledge for acylcarnitines is available at [Dambrova et al. 2021, Physiological Reviews].
Structure
Data?1582753100
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC17H31NO4
Average Molecular Weight313.4323
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight313.225308485
IUPAC Name3-(dec-9-enoyloxy)-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
Traditional Name3-(dec-9-enoyloxy)-4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
C[N+](C)(C)CC(CC([O-])=O)OC(=O)CCCCCCCC=C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C17H31NO4/c1-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-17(21)22-15(13-16(19)20)14-18(2,3)4/h5,15H,1,6-14H2,2-4H3
InChI KeyGOOOCIIXFLVRAG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl carnitines. These are organic compounds containing a fatty acid with the carboxylic acid attached to carnitine through an ester bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acid esters
Direct ParentAcyl carnitines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Acyl-carnitine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic salt
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00016 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.97ALOGPS
logP-0.94ChemAxon
logS-6.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.22ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.43 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity109.51 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability36.24 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-9300000000-6870bdfe92ed22fee2d8Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.17 +/- 0.04 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.12-0.40 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.22(0.06) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.3 +/- 0.14 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.47 +/- 0.23 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.14 (0.06-0.32) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.03-0.2 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • López Hernández Y...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.08 +/- 0.04 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)FemaleNormal
    • López Hernández Y...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.09 +/- 0.04 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)MaleNormal
    • López Hernández Y...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.28(0.09) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart failure with preserved ejection fraction details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.151 +/- 0.045 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Obesity
    • Metabolomics reve...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.156 +/- 0.049 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Obesity
    • Metabolomics reve...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.204 (0.0677) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy with fetus having congenital heart defect details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Obesity
  1. Simone Wahl, Christina Holzapfel, Zhonghao Yu, Michaela Breier, Ivan Kondofersky, Christiane Fuchs, Paula Singmann, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Harald Grallert, Thomas Illig, Rui Wang-Sattler, Thomas Reinehr (2013). Metabolomics reveals determinants of weight loss during lifestyle intervention in obese children. Metabolomics.
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB029331
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound53481699
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  2. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  3. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  4. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  5. FRITZ IB: Action of carnitine on long chain fatty acid oxidation by liver. Am J Physiol. 1959 Aug;197:297-304. doi: 10.1152/ajplegacy.1959.197.2.297. [PubMed:13825279 ]
  6. Violante S, Achetib N, van Roermund CWT, Hagen J, Dodatko T, Vaz FM, Waterham HR, Chen H, Baes M, Yu C, Argmann CA, Houten SM: Peroxisomes can oxidize medium- and long-chain fatty acids through a pathway involving ABCD3 and HSD17B4. FASEB J. 2019 Mar;33(3):4355-4364. doi: 10.1096/fj.201801498R. Epub 2018 Dec 12. [PubMed:30540494 ]
  7. Kang M, Yoo HJ, Kim M, Kim M, Lee JH: Metabolomics identifies increases in the acylcarnitine profiles in the plasma of overweight subjects in response to mild weight loss: a randomized, controlled design study. Lipids Health Dis. 2018 Oct 15;17(1):237. doi: 10.1186/s12944-018-0887-1. [PubMed:30322392 ]
  8. Cao B, Wang D, Pan Z, McIntyre RS, Brietzke E, Subramanieapillai M, Nozari Y, Wang J: Metabolic profiling for water-soluble metabolites in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls in a Chinese population: A case-control study. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2020 Jun;21(5):357-367. doi: 10.1080/15622975.2019.1615639. Epub 2019 Jun 4. [PubMed:31161852 ]
  9. Kiykim E, Aktuglu Zeybek AC, Barut K, Zubarioglu T, Cansever MS, Alsancak S, Kasapcopur O: Screening of Free Carnitine and Acylcarnitine Status in Children With Familial Mediterranean Fever. Arch Rheumatol. 2016 Mar 10;31(2):133-138. doi: 10.5606/ArchRheumatol.2016.5696. eCollection 2016 Jun. [PubMed:29900937 ]
  10. Ferdinandusse S, Mulders J, IJlst L, Denis S, Dacremont G, Waterham HR, Wanders RJ: Molecular cloning and expression of human carnitine octanoyltransferase: evidence for its role in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Sep 16;263(1):213-8. [PubMed:10486279 ]
  11. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.