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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:39:36 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14407
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCarmustine
DescriptionCarmustine, also known as BCNU or gliadel, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as nitrosoureas. Nitrosoureas are compounds containing a nitro group and an urea group N-N linked together, with the general structure R1N(R2)C(=O)N(R3)N=O. Carmustine is a drug which is used for the treatment of brain tumors, multiple myeloma, hodgkin's disease and non-hodgkin's lymphomas. Carmustine (bis-chloroethylnitrosourea, BCNU, BiCNU) is a medication used mainly for chemotherapy. Carmustine is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). Outside of the human body, Carmustine has been detected, but not quantified in, mollusks. This could make carmustine a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. It is also used as part of a chemotherapeutic protocol in preparation for hematological stem cell transplantation, a type of bone marrow transplant, in order to reduce the white blood cell count in the recipient. Carmustine is formally rated as a probable carcinogen (by IARC 2A) and is also a potentially toxic compound. It is a nitrogen mustard β-chloro-nitrosourea compound. In the treatment of brain tumours, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved biodegradable discs infused with carmustine (Gliadel). . The product is now available as a generic version with other manufacturers offering the product licensed in the USA and EU markets. Carmustine is used as an alkylating agent to treat several types of brain cancer including glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, medulloblastoma and astrocytoma), multiple myeloma, and lymphoma (Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin). They are implanted under the skull during a surgery called a craniotomy. In India it is sold under various brand names, including Consium.
Bischloroethyl nitrosoureaChEBI
Chemical FormulaC5H9Cl2N3O2
Average Molecular Weight214.05
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight213.007181961
IUPAC Name1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea
Traditional Namecarmustine
CAS Registry Number154-93-8
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as nitrosoureas. Nitrosoureas are compounds containing a nitro group and an urea group N-N linked together, with the general structure R1N(R2)C(=O)N(R3)N=O.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassOrganic carbonic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassUreas
Direct ParentNitrosoureas
Alternative Parents
  • Nitrosourea
  • Semicarbazide
  • Nitrosamide
  • Organic n-nitroso compound
  • Organic nitroso compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alkyl halide
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Molecular Properties
Melting Point31 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.53 g/LNot Available
LogP1.5Not Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
Water Solubility1.53 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.96ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area61.77 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity46.98 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability18.8 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Collision Cross Sections

NameAdductTypeData SourceValueReference

Retention Indices


Not Available


Not Available


Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0bu0-6900000000-7ee333c26479b92752532017-09-01View Spectrum


Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-06vi-9630000000-1b262631b4a720cd9eba2016-06-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9500000000-fbebb9877cfb22d2c3d82016-06-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03fr-9000000000-86de321ebee3984d77052016-06-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-116u-4930000000-a2c48761c56e3640e06b2016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004l-6900000000-fc62a96dc02889b5a3b72016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004l-9200000000-d116bdf5580083ca15c72016-08-03View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00262 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00262 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00262
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB012974
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2480
KEGG Compound IDC06873
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCarmustine
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound2578
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID3423
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available


General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Akella SS, Harris C: Pyridine nucleotide flux and glutathione oxidation in the cultured rat conceptus. Reprod Toxicol. 1999 May-Jun;13(3):203-13. [PubMed:10378469 ]
  2. Kirsch JD, Yi AK, Spitz DR, Krieg AM: Accumulation of glutathione disulfide mediates NF-kappaB activation during immune stimulation with CpG DNA. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 2002 Oct;12(5):327-40. [PubMed:12477282 ]
  3. Vallyathan V, Mega JF, Shi X, Dalal NS: Enhanced generation of free radicals from phagocytes induced by mineral dusts. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1992 Apr;6(4):404-13. [PubMed:1312851 ]
  4. Brodie AE, Reed DJ: Glutathione disulfide reduction in tumor mitochondria after t-butyl hydroperoxide treatment. Chem Biol Interact. 1992 Sep 28;84(2):125-32. [PubMed:1394620 ]
  5. Jopperi-Davis KS, Park MS, Rogers LK, Backes CH Jr, Lim IK, Smith CV: Compartmental inhibition of hepatic glutathione reductase activities by 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (BCNU) in Sprague-Dawley and Fischer-344 rats. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Mar 7;147(3):219-28. [PubMed:15104113 ]
  6. Doroshenko N, Doroshenko P: The glutathione reductase inhibitor carmustine induces an influx of Ca2+ in PC12 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Aug 16;497(1):17-24. [PubMed:15321730 ]
  7. Powell SR, Puglia CD: Effect of inhibition of glutathione reductase by carmustine on central nervous system oxygen toxicity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Jan;240(1):111-7. [PubMed:3806383 ]
  8. Puglia CD, Powell SR: Inhibition of cellular antioxidants: a possible mechanism of toxic cell injury. Environ Health Perspect. 1984 Aug;57:307-11. [PubMed:6094175 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]