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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:51:39 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014509
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14509
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGrepafloxacin
DescriptionGrepafloxacin belongs to the class of organic compounds known as quinoline carboxylic acids. These are quinolines in which the quinoline ring system is substituted by a carboxyl group at one or more positions. Grepafloxacin is a drug which is used for treatment of adults with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of haemophilus influenzae, streptococcus pneumoniae, or moraxella catarrhalis. Based on a literature review a significant number of articles have been published on Grepafloxacin.
Structure
Data?1582753187
Synonyms
ValueSource
RaxarChEMBL, HMDB
Grepafloxacin hydrochlorideMeSH, HMDB
Grepafloxacin HCLMeSH, HMDB
(+--)-1-Cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-5-methyl-7-(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acidMeSH, HMDB
(+--)-1-Cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-5-methyl-7-(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid monohydrochlorideMeSH, HMDB
Chemical FormulaC19H22FN3O3
Average Molecular Weight359.3947
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight359.16451979
IUPAC Name1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-5-methyl-7-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid
Traditional Namegrepafloxacin
CAS Registry Number119914-60-2
SMILES
CC1CN(CCN1)C1=C(F)C(C)=C2C(=O)C(=CN(C3CC3)C2=C1)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C19H22FN3O3/c1-10-8-22(6-5-21-10)15-7-14-16(11(2)17(15)20)18(24)13(19(25)26)9-23(14)12-3-4-12/h7,9-10,12,21H,3-6,8H2,1-2H3,(H,25,26)
InChI KeyAIJTTZAVMXIJGM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as quinoline carboxylic acids. These are quinolines in which the quinoline ring system is substituted by a carboxyl group at one or more positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassQuinolines and derivatives
Sub ClassQuinoline carboxylic acids
Direct ParentQuinoline carboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Quinoline-3-carboxylic acid
  • Fluoroquinolone
  • N-arylpiperazine
  • Aminoquinoline
  • Haloquinoline
  • Dihydroquinolone
  • Dihydroquinoline
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Tertiary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Aryl halide
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Piperazine
  • Pyridine
  • Benzenoid
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.63 g/LNot Available
LogP2.9Not Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.63 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.12ALOGPS
logP0.12ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.77ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.88 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity97.4 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability37.69 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DeepCCS[M+H]+191.63730932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-189.27930932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-223.50130932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+198.85330932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
GrepafloxacinCC1CN(CCN1)C1=C(F)C(C)=C2C(=O)C(=CN(C3CC3)C2=C1)C(O)=O3580.3Standard polar33892256
GrepafloxacinCC1CN(CCN1)C1=C(F)C(C)=C2C(=O)C(=CN(C3CC3)C2=C1)C(O)=O2740.3Standard non polar33892256
GrepafloxacinCC1CN(CCN1)C1=C(F)C(C)=C2C(=O)C(=CN(C3CC3)C2=C1)C(O)=O3615.5Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Grepafloxacin,1TMS,isomer #1CC1=C(F)C(N2CCNC(C)C2)=CC2=C1C(=O)C(C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)=CN2C1CC13461.0Semi standard non polar33892256
Grepafloxacin,1TMS,isomer #2CC1=C(F)C(N2CCN([Si](C)(C)C)C(C)C2)=CC2=C1C(=O)C(C(=O)O)=CN2C1CC13424.8Semi standard non polar33892256
Grepafloxacin,2TMS,isomer #1CC1=C(F)C(N2CCN([Si](C)(C)C)C(C)C2)=CC2=C1C(=O)C(C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)=CN2C1CC13389.9Semi standard non polar33892256
Grepafloxacin,2TMS,isomer #1CC1=C(F)C(N2CCN([Si](C)(C)C)C(C)C2)=CC2=C1C(=O)C(C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)=CN2C1CC13147.6Standard non polar33892256
Grepafloxacin,2TMS,isomer #1CC1=C(F)C(N2CCN([Si](C)(C)C)C(C)C2)=CC2=C1C(=O)C(C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)=CN2C1CC13598.4Standard polar33892256
Grepafloxacin,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC1=C(F)C(N2CCNC(C)C2)=CC2=C1C(=O)C(C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=CN2C1CC13641.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Grepafloxacin,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC1=C(F)C(N2CCN([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(C)C2)=CC2=C1C(=O)C(C(=O)O)=CN2C1CC13675.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Grepafloxacin,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC1=C(F)C(N2CCN([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(C)C2)=CC2=C1C(=O)C(C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=CN2C1CC13817.3Semi standard non polar33892256
Grepafloxacin,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC1=C(F)C(N2CCN([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(C)C2)=CC2=C1C(=O)C(C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=CN2C1CC13548.6Standard non polar33892256
Grepafloxacin,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC1=C(F)C(N2CCN([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(C)C2)=CC2=C1C(=O)C(C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=CN2C1CC13777.7Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fr6-1029000000-706de57181850354ad842017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-014l-4009700000-5f8c566ab4608e488a1d2017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin GC-MS (TBDMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-03di-0009000000-2f5a30d953de1f736ea32016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-01ox-7029000000-5092d7ae0d6cd5b524bb2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9030000000-c160b8ef525b233583742016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-08fr-0009000000-21915b34d4523001f7f22016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-03di-2079000000-ac0604da9e8b550b17112016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-9040000000-825d27f7dab3d78603bf2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0009000000-714280bbcfde93aa7b442021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0019000000-5e38035e60ddc6c31a502021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-1098000000-13c3d9c32132c12b9af22021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-03di-0009000000-eb6c80e8b1d8eb060c072021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-0009000000-d1bdf823b553634a98a32021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Grepafloxacin 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a6r-1094000000-f623c32b7e5523cef0dc2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00365 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00365 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00365
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID65391
KEGG Compound IDC11368
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGrepafloxacin
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem CompoundNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Pal D, Mitra AK: MDR- and CYP3A4-mediated drug-drug interactions. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;1(3):323-39. Epub 2006 Aug 2. [PubMed:18040809 ]
  2. Owens RC Jr: QT prolongation with antimicrobial agents: understanding the significance. Drugs. 2004;64(10):1091-124. [PubMed:15139788 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Rodighiero V: Effects of liver disease on pharmacokinetics. An update. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1999 Nov;37(5):399-431. [PubMed:10589374 ]
  2. Bril F, Gonzalez CD, Di Girolamo G: Antimicrobial agents-associated with QT interval prolongation. Curr Drug Saf. 2010 Jan;5(1):85-92. [PubMed:20210724 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular weight:
62751.1
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular weight:
174205.6
References
  1. Sasabe H, Tsuji A, Sugiyama Y: Carrier-mediated mechanism for the biliary excretion of the quinolone antibiotic grepafloxacin and its glucuronide in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Mar;284(3):1033-9. [PubMed:9495864 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o- glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular weight:
171589.5
References
  1. Tamai I, Yamashita J, Kido Y, Ohnari A, Sai Y, Shima Y, Naruhashi K, Koizumi S, Tsuji A: Limited distribution of new quinolone antibacterial agents into brain caused by multiple efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):146-52. [PubMed:10991972 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Yamaguchi H, Yano I, Hashimoto Y, Inui KI: Secretory mechanisms of grepafloxacin and levofloxacin in the human intestinal cell line caco-2. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):360-6. [PubMed:10992002 ]
  2. Naruhashi K, Tamai I, Inoue N, Muraoka H, Sai Y, Suzuki N, Tsuji A: Active intestinal secretion of new quinolone antimicrobials and the partial contribution of P-glycoprotein. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001 May;53(5):699-709. [PubMed:11370709 ]
  3. Yamaguchi H, Yano I, Saito H, Inui K: Effect of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure on bioavailability and intestinal secretion of quinolone antibacterial drugs in rats. Pharm Res. 2004 Feb;21(2):330-8. [PubMed:15032316 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Cisplatin may develop a nephrotoxic action. Transport of creatinine is inhibited by fluoroquinolones such as DX-619 and LVFX. This transporter is a major determinant of the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin and may contribute to antitumor specificity
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular weight:
62564.0
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [PubMed:12089365 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8
References
  1. Uwai Y, Okuda M, Takami K, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Functional characterization of the rat multispecific organic anion transporter OAT1 mediating basolateral uptake of anionic drugs in the kidney. FEBS Lett. 1998 Nov 6;438(3):321-4. [PubMed:9827570 ]