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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:41:01 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015125
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15125
Metabolite Identification
Common NameExemestane
DescriptionExemestane, also known as aromasin, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as androgens and derivatives. These are 3-hydroxylated C19 steroid hormones. They are known to favor the development of masculine characteristics. They also show profound effects on scalp and body hair in humans. Exemestane is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa).
Structure
Data?1582753261
Synonyms
ValueSource
6-Methyleneandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dioneChEBI
ExemestanoChEBI
ExemestanumChEBI
AromasinKegg
ExamestaneHMDB
AromasineHMDB
AromasilHMDB
Chemical FormulaC20H24O2
Average Molecular Weight296.4034
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight296.177630012
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,10R,11S,15S)-2,15-dimethyl-8-methylidenetetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadeca-3,6-diene-5,14-dione
Traditional Nameexemestane
CAS Registry Number107868-30-4
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CCC(=O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CC(=C)C2=CC(=O)C=C[C@]12C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C20H24O2/c1-12-10-14-15-4-5-18(22)20(15,3)9-7-16(14)19(2)8-6-13(21)11-17(12)19/h6,8,11,14-16H,1,4-5,7,9-10H2,2-3H3/t14-,15-,16-,19+,20-/m0/s1
InChI KeyBFYIZQONLCFLEV-DAELLWKTSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as androgens and derivatives. These are 3-hydroxylated C19 steroid hormones. They are known to favor the development of masculine characteristics. They also show profound effects on scalp and body hair in humans.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassAndrostane steroids
Direct ParentAndrogens and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Androgen-skeleton
  • Oxosteroid
  • 17-oxosteroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • 3-oxo-delta-1,4-steroid
  • Delta-1,4-steroid
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Ketone
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point155.13 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.0068 g/LNot Available
LogP3.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0068 g/LALOGPS
logP2.67ALOGPS
logP3.87ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.96ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity89.03 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability33.71 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0gc0-0490000000-1b1c46e80815c179a447Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0002-0790000000-46727c37da42caccba4fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0002-0790000000-46727c37da42caccba4fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0002-0790000000-46727c37da42caccba4fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0002-0790000000-46727c37da42caccba4fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0002-0790000000-46727c37da42caccba4fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0002-0790000000-46727c37da42caccba4fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0002-0790000000-46727c37da42caccba4fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0002-0790000000-46727c37da42caccba4fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0002-0790000000-46727c37da42caccba4fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0002-0190000000-5e04b3359ea2370bbde1Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0002-0950000000-0daf2c711395130c78a2Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-006t-0910000000-58ddee06caa2cdb4eeacSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-006t-0910000000-64dd2bfc1eef30f5b766Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-00wa-0900000000-ec533e47176e668d1ee9Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0980000000-457e7fb9bd5073d9521aSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0090000000-cc584f39a06f24401467Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-1960000000-22b6bd7c2ccea9c0c648Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-00dj-2910000000-32edf95f8027c36c74ceSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-05fu-3900000000-84dacb108ccc2572ab41Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0090000000-f8aaffa2c09a551a7d69Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-002b-0290000000-dc2ea5e87de49e0a95f8Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-2490000000-6bcc7507771cadb1be82Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0090000000-cc26a78111c90014bbc4Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-0090000000-6c59d18db75b7bfa2b7fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00ou-2090000000-0dafb14d21bf327e27c5Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00990 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00990 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00990
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID54278
KEGG Compound IDC08162
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkExemestane
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound60198
PDB IDEXM
ChEBI ID4953
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Coombes RC, Kilburn LS, Snowdon CF, Paridaens R, Coleman RE, Jones SE, Jassem J, Van de Velde CJ, Delozier T, Alvarez I, Del Mastro L, Ortmann O, Diedrich K, Coates AS, Bajetta E, Holmberg SB, Dodwell D, Mickiewicz E, Andersen J, Lonning PE, Cocconi G, Forbes J, Castiglione M, Stuart N, Stewart A, Fallowfield LJ, Bertelli G, Hall E, Bogle RG, Carpentieri M, Colajori E, Subar M, Ireland E, Bliss JM: Survival and safety of exemestane versus tamoxifen after 2-3 years' tamoxifen treatment (Intergroup Exemestane Study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Feb 17;369(9561):559-70. [PubMed:17307102 ]
  2. Nabholtz JM: Long-term safety of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Feb;4(1):189-204. [PubMed:18728707 ]
  3. Untch M, Jackisch C: Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Dec;4(6):1295-304. [PubMed:19337436 ]
  4. Robinson A: A review of the use of exemestane in early breast cancer. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2009 Feb;5(1):91-8. Epub 2009 Mar 26. [PubMed:19436613 ]
  5. Abrial C, Durando X, Mouret-Reynier MA, Thivat E, Bayet-Robert M, Nayl B, Dubray P, Pomel C, Chollet P, Penault-Llorca F: Role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy in the treatment of breast cancer: a review of clinical trials. Int J Gen Med. 2009 Jul 30;2:129-40. [PubMed:20360896 ]
  6. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  7. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  8. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  9. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  10. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Robinson A: A review of the use of exemestane in early breast cancer. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2009 Feb;5(1):91-8. Epub 2009 Mar 26. [PubMed:19436613 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular weight:
57882.48
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Koutras A, Giannopoulou E, Kritikou I, Antonacopoulou A, Evans TR, Papavassiliou AG, Kalofonos H: Antiproliferative effect of exemestane in lung cancer cells. Mol Cancer. 2009 Nov 24;8:109. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-8-109. [PubMed:19930708 ]
  3. Robinson A: A review of the use of exemestane in early breast cancer. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2009 Feb;5(1):91-8. Epub 2009 Mar 26. [PubMed:19436613 ]
  4. Untch M, Jackisch C: Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Dec;4(6):1295-304. [PubMed:19337436 ]
  5. Barnadas A, Gil M, Gonzalez S, Tusquets I, Munoz M, Arcusa A, Prieto L, Margeli-Vila M, Moreno A: Exemestane as primary treatment of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a phase II trial. Br J Cancer. 2009 Feb 10;100(3):442-9. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6604868. Epub 2009 Jan 20. [PubMed:19156139 ]
  6. Abrial C, Durando X, Mouret-Reynier MA, Thivat E, Bayet-Robert M, Nayl B, Dubray P, Pomel C, Chollet P, Penault-Llorca F: Role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy in the treatment of breast cancer: a review of clinical trials. Int J Gen Med. 2009 Jul 30;2:129-40. [PubMed:20360896 ]
  7. Nabholtz JM: Long-term safety of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Feb;4(1):189-204. [PubMed:18728707 ]
  8. Brueggemeier RW: Update on the use of aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006 Oct;7(14):1919-30. [PubMed:17020418 ]
  9. Brueggemeier RW, Hackett JC, Diaz-Cruz ES: Aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer. Endocr Rev. 2005 May;26(3):331-45. Epub 2005 Apr 6. [PubMed:15814851 ]
  10. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]