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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:41:06 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015169
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15169
Metabolite Identification
Common NameProcainamide
DescriptionProcainamide, also known as biocoryl or procanbid, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminobenzamides. These are organic compounds containing a benzamide moiety with an amine group attached to the benzene ring. It is a derivative of procaine with less CNS action. Procainamide is a drug which is used for the treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Procainamide is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). In humans, procainamide is involved in the metabolic disorder called the procainamide (antiarrhythmic) action pathway. Procainamide is an agent indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia and in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia occurring during cardiac manipulation, such as surgery or catheterization, or which may occur during acute myocardial infarction, digitalis toxicity, or other cardiac diseases. Procainamide is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. The sinoatrial node is, however, unaffected. Ventricular excitability is depressed and the stimulation threshold of the ventricle is increased during diastole. The mode of action of the antiarrhythmic effect of Procainamide appears to be similar to that of procaine and quinidine.
Structure
Data?1582753266
Synonyms
ValueSource
BiocorylChEBI
p-Amino-N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)benzamideChEBI
p-Aminobenzoic diethylaminoethylamideChEBI
ProcainamidaChEBI
ProcainamidumChEBI
Apo-procainamideHMDB
Parke davis brand OF procainamide hydrochlorideHMDB
Procainamide hydrochlorideHMDB
ProcamideHMDB
ProcanbidHMDB
Apotex brand OF procainamide hydrochlorideHMDB
Hydrochloride, procainamideHMDB
ProcanHMDB
Uriach brand OF procainamide hydrochlorideHMDB
Apothecon brand OF procainamide hydrochlorideHMDB
NovocainamideHMDB
NovocamidHMDB
Pfizer brand OF procainamide hydrochlorideHMDB
Procaine amideHMDB
Procan SRHMDB
PronestylHMDB
RhythminHMDB
Sidmark brand OF procainamide hydrochlorideHMDB
Amide, procaineHMDB
Bristol-myers squibb brand OF procainamide hydrochlorideHMDB
Monarch brand OF procainamide hydrochlorideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC13H21N3O
Average Molecular Weight235.3253
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight235.168462309
IUPAC Name4-amino-N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]benzamide
Traditional Nameprocainamide
CAS Registry Number51-06-9
SMILES
CCN(CC)CCNC(=O)C1=CC=C(N)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C13H21N3O/c1-3-16(4-2)10-9-15-13(17)11-5-7-12(14)8-6-11/h5-8H,3-4,9-10,14H2,1-2H3,(H,15,17)
InChI KeyREQCZEXYDRLIBE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminobenzamides. These are organic compounds containing a benzamide moiety with an amine group attached to the benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAminobenzamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Aminobenzamide
  • Benzamide
  • Benzoyl
  • Aniline or substituted anilines
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Carboxamide group
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point165 - 169 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.02 g/LNot Available
LogP1.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.02 g/LALOGPS
logP1.42ALOGPS
logP0.95ChemAxon
logS-1.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.75ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.04ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.36 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity72.25 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability27.69 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra

GC-MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dr-9700000000-95dbcabafddc689c7c512017-09-01View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00dr-9700000000-95dbcabafddc689c7c512021-09-05View Spectrum

LC-MS/MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-03dr-1940000000-b9d8d6702d2ec39984a32017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-03dr-1940000000-b9d8d6702d2ec39984a32017-09-14View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00ri-1790000000-c34ddbb3ff1c0983adcb2016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0fk9-2910000000-eade1dffa69e386cc91e2016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9400000000-40f1c1ebcfeb2029c8d62016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0190000000-ec82e6634f52910882532016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001l-6690000000-309e42ec6748fb795a102016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-0b46b12a4a8fed4dd3282016-08-03View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01035 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01035 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01035
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4744
KEGG Compound IDC07401
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkProcainamide
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound4913
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID8428
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular weight:
68417.575
References
  1. Bailey DN: Amitriptyline and procainamide inhibition of cocaine and cocaethylene degradation in human serum in vitro. J Anal Toxicol. 1999 Mar-Apr;23(2):99-102. [PubMed:10192412 ]
  2. Page JD, Wilson IB, Silman I: Butyrylcholinesterase: inhibition by arsenite, fluoride, and other ligands, cooperativity in binding. Mol Pharmacol. 1985 Apr;27(4):437-43. [PubMed:3982389 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Lessard E, Hamelin BA, Labbe L, O'Hara G, Belanger PM, Turgeon J: Involvement of CYP2D6 activity in the N-oxidation of procainamide in man. Pharmacogenetics. 1999 Dec;9(6):683-96. [PubMed:10634131 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Methylates CpG residues. Preferentially methylates hemimethylated DNA. Associates with DNA replication sites in S phase maintaining the methylation pattern in the newly synthesized strand, that is essential for epigenetic inheritance. Associates with chromatin during G2 and M phases to maintain DNA methylation independently of replication. It is responsible for maintaining methylation patterns established in development. DNA methylation is coordinated with methylation of histones. Mediates transcriptional repression by direct binding to HDAC2. In association with DNMT3B and via the recruitment of CTCFL/BORIS, involved in activation of BAG1 gene expression by modulating dimethylation of promoter histone H3 at H3K4 and H3K9.
Gene Name:
DNMT1
Uniprot ID:
P26358
Molecular weight:
184817.425
References
  1. Oelke K, Lu Q, Richardson D, Wu A, Deng C, Hanash S, Richardson B: Overexpression of CD70 and overstimulation of IgG synthesis by lupus T cells and T cells treated with DNA methylation inhibitors. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jun;50(6):1850-60. [PubMed:15188362 ]
  2. Januchowski R, Jagodzinski PP: Effect of 5-azacytidine and procainamide on CD3-zeta chain expression in Jurkat T cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2005 Apr;59(3):122-6. [PubMed:15795105 ]
  3. Lee BH, Yegnasubramanian S, Lin X, Nelson WG: Procainamide is a specific inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 1. J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 9;280(49):40749-56. Epub 2005 Oct 17. [PubMed:16230360 ]
  4. Scheinbart LS, Johnson MA, Gross LA, Edelstein SR, Richardson BC: Procainamide inhibits DNA methyltransferase in a human T cell line. J Rheumatol. 1991 Apr;18(4):530-4. [PubMed:2066944 ]
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential in the electrocardiogram
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular weight:
226937.5
References
  1. Weiss R, Barmada MM, Nguyen T, Seibel JS, Cavlovich D, Kornblit CA, Angelilli A, Villanueva F, McNamara DM, London B: Clinical and molecular heterogeneity in the Brugada syndrome: a novel gene locus on chromosome 3. Circulation. 2002 Feb 12;105(6):707-13. [PubMed:11839626 ]
  2. Brugada R, Brugada J, Antzelevitch C, Kirsch GE, Potenza D, Towbin JA, Brugada P: Sodium channel blockers identify risk for sudden death in patients with ST-segment elevation and right bundle branch block but structurally normal hearts. Circulation. 2000 Feb 8;101(5):510-5. [PubMed:10662748 ]
  3. Chen SM, Kuo CT, Lin KH, Chiang FT: Brugada syndrome without mutation of the cardiac sodium channel gene in a Taiwanese patient. J Formos Med Assoc. 2000 Nov;99(11):860-2. [PubMed:11155778 ]
  4. Brugada J, Brugada R, Brugada P: [Brugada syndrome]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1999 Jul;92(7):847-50. [PubMed:10443304 ]
  5. Brugada J, Brugada P, Brugada R: The syndrome of right bundle branch block ST segment elevation in V1 to V3 and sudden death--the Brugada syndrome. Europace. 1999 Jul;1(3):156-66. [PubMed:11225790 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular weight:
62751.1
References
  1. Wu X, Prasad PD, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: cDNA sequence, transport function, and genomic organization of human OCTN2, a new member of the organic cation transporter family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 May 29;246(3):589-95. [PubMed:9618255 ]
  2. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
  3. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873 ]
  4. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. [PubMed:10454528 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET)
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular weight:
62154.5
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [PubMed:10215651 ]
  2. Wu X, George RL, Huang W, Wang H, Conway SJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Structural and functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of rat OCTN1, an organic cation transporter, cloned from placenta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 1;1466(1-2):315-27. [PubMed:10825452 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)- N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin- dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular weight:
61187.4
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [PubMed:12606755 ]
  2. Zhang L, Dresser MJ, Gray AT, Yost SC, Terashita S, Giacomini KM: Cloning and functional expression of a human liver organic cation transporter. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Jun;51(6):913-21. [PubMed:9187257 ]
  3. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [PubMed:9655880 ]
  4. Kakehi M, Koyabu N, Nakamura T, Uchiumi T, Kuwano M, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Functional characterization of mouse cation transporter mOCT2 compared with mOCT1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Aug 23;296(3):644-50. [PubMed:12176030 ]
  5. Green RM, Lo K, Sterritt C, Beier DR: Cloning and functional expression of a mouse liver organic cation transporter. Hepatology. 1999 May;29(5):1556-62. [PubMed:10216142 ]
  6. Zhang L, Dresser MJ, Chun JK, Babbitt PC, Giacomini KM: Cloning and functional characterization of a rat renal organic cation transporter isoform (rOCT1A). J Biol Chem. 1997 Jun 27;272(26):16548-54. [PubMed:9195965 ]
  7. Goralski KB, Lou G, Prowse MT, Gorboulev V, Volk C, Koepsell H, Sitar DS: The cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 interact with bicarbonate but play only a minor role for amantadine uptake into rat renal proximal tubules. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):959-68. [PubMed:12438515 ]
  8. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [PubMed:11758759 ]
  9. Grundemann D, Gorboulev V, Gambaryan S, Veyhl M, Koepsell H: Drug excretion mediated by a new prototype of polyspecific transporter. Nature. 1994 Dec 8;372(6506):549-52. [PubMed:7990927 ]
  10. Ishiguro N, Saito A, Yokoyama K, Morikawa M, Igarashi T, Tamai I: Transport of the dopamine D2 agonist pramipexole by rat organic cation transporters OCT1 and OCT2 in kidney. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):495-9. Epub 2005 Jan 7. [PubMed:15640376 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Cisplatin may develop a nephrotoxic action. Transport of creatinine is inhibited by fluoroquinolones such as DX-619 and LVFX. This transporter is a major determinant of the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin and may contribute to antitumor specificity
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular weight:
62564.0
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [PubMed:12089365 ]
  2. Gorboulev V, Ulzheimer JC, Akhoundova A, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Karbach U, Quester S, Baumann C, Lang F, Busch AE, Koepsell H: Cloning and characterization of two human polyspecific organic cation transporters. DNA Cell Biol. 1997 Jul;16(7):871-81. [PubMed:9260930 ]
  3. Kakehi M, Koyabu N, Nakamura T, Uchiumi T, Kuwano M, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Functional characterization of mouse cation transporter mOCT2 compared with mOCT1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Aug 23;296(3):644-50. [PubMed:12176030 ]
  4. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. [PubMed:11502595 ]
  5. Goralski KB, Lou G, Prowse MT, Gorboulev V, Volk C, Koepsell H, Sitar DS: The cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 interact with bicarbonate but play only a minor role for amantadine uptake into rat renal proximal tubules. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):959-68. [PubMed:12438515 ]
  6. Ishiguro N, Saito A, Yokoyama K, Morikawa M, Igarashi T, Tamai I: Transport of the dopamine D2 agonist pramipexole by rat organic cation transporters OCT1 and OCT2 in kidney. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):495-9. Epub 2005 Jan 7. [PubMed:15640376 ]
  7. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [PubMed:11758759 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain
Gene Name:
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID:
O75751
Molecular weight:
61279.5
References
  1. Wu X, Huang W, Ganapathy ME, Wang H, Kekuda R, Conway SJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Structure, function, and regional distribution of the organic cation transporter OCT3 in the kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000 Sep;279(3):F449-58. [PubMed:10966924 ]