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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:41:16 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015256
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15256
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTolbutamide
DescriptionTolbutamide is an oral antihyperglycemic agent used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is structurally similar to acetohexamide, chlorpropamide and tolazamide and belongs to the sulfonylurea class of insulin secretagogues, which act by stimulating cells of the pancreas to release insulin. Sulfonylureas increase both basal insulin secretion and meal-stimulated insulin release. Medications in this class differ in their dose, rate of absorption, duration of action, route of elimination and binding site on their target pancreatic cell receptor. Sulfonylureas also increase peripheral glucose utilization, decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis and may increase the number and sensitivity of insulin receptors. Sulfonylureas are associated with weight gain, though less so than insulin. Due to their mechanism of action, sulfonylureas may cause hypoglycemia and require consistent food intake to decrease this risk. The risk of hypoglycemia is increased in elderly, debilitated and malnourished individuals. Tolbutamide appears to be metabolized in the liver. Tolbutamide and its metabolites are excreted in urine (75-85%) and feces.
Structure
Data?1582753276
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-Butyl-3-(p-methylphenylsulfonyl)ureaChEBI
1-Butyl-3-(p-tolylsulfonyl)ureaChEBI
1-Butyl-3-tosylureaChEBI
1-p-Toluenesulfonyl-3-butylureaChEBI
3-(p-Tolyl-4-sulfonyl)-1-butylureaChEBI
N-(4-Methylbenzenesulfonyl)-n'-butylureaChEBI
N-(4-Methylphenylsulfonyl)-n'-butylureaChEBI
N-(p-Methylbenzenesulfonyl)-n'-butylureaChEBI
N-(Sulfonyl-p-methylbenzene)-n'-N-butylureaChEBI
N-Butyl-n'-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)ureaChEBI
N-Butyl-n'-(p-tolylsulfonyl)ureaChEBI
N-Butyl-n'-p-toluenesulfonylureaChEBI
N-N-Butyl-n'-tosylureaChEBI
OrinaseChEBI
TolbutamidaChEBI
TolbutamidumChEBI
TolylsulfonylbutylureaChEBI
1-Butyl-3-(p-methylphenylsulphonyl)ureaGenerator
1-Butyl-3-(p-tolylsulphonyl)ureaGenerator
1-p-Toluenesulphonyl-3-butylureaGenerator
3-(p-Tolyl-4-sulphonyl)-1-butylureaGenerator
N-(4-Methylbenzenesulphonyl)-n'-butylureaGenerator
N-(4-Methylphenylsulphonyl)-n'-butylureaGenerator
N-(p-Methylbenzenesulphonyl)-n'-butylureaGenerator
N-(Sulphonyl-p-methylbenzene)-n'-N-butylureaGenerator
N-Butyl-n'-(4-methylphenylsulphonyl)ureaGenerator
N-Butyl-n'-(p-tolylsulphonyl)ureaGenerator
N-Butyl-n'-p-toluenesulphonylureaGenerator
TolylsulphonylbutylureaGenerator
Berlin chemie brand OF tolbutamideHMDB
Berlin-chemie brand OF tolbutamideHMDB
DiavalHMDB
RastinonHMDB
Tolbutamid r.a.n.HMDB
Yamanouchi brand OF tolbutamideHMDB
ArtosinHMDB
Hoechst brand OF tolbutamideHMDB
OrabetHMDB
Tolbutamide butamide brandHMDB
Tolbutamide hoechst brandHMDB
Apo-tolbutamideHMDB
Butamide brand OF tolbutamideHMDB
DolipolHMDB
Pfizer brand OF tolbutamideHMDB
Tolbutamide aventis brandHMDB
Valdecasas brand OF tolbutamideHMDB
Apotex brand OF tolbutamideHMDB
Aventis brand OF tolbutamideHMDB
DiabetolHMDB
R.A.N. brand OF tolbutamideHMDB
Tolbutamide pfizer brandHMDB
Chemical FormulaC12H18N2O3S
Average Molecular Weight270.348
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight270.103813142
IUPAC Name3-butyl-1-(4-methylbenzenesulfonyl)urea
Traditional Nametolbutamide
CAS Registry Number64-77-7
SMILES
CCCCNC(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C12H18N2O3S/c1-3-4-9-13-12(15)14-18(16,17)11-7-5-10(2)6-8-11/h5-8H,3-4,9H2,1-2H3,(H2,13,14,15)
InChI KeyJLRGJRBPOGGCBT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzenesulfonamides. These are organic compounds containing a sulfonamide group that is S-linked to a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzenesulfonamides
Direct ParentBenzenesulfonamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzenesulfonamide
  • Tosyl compound
  • Benzenesulfonyl group
  • Toluene
  • Sulfonylurea
  • Organic sulfonic acid or derivatives
  • Organosulfonic acid or derivatives
  • Sulfonyl
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point128.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.2 g/LNot Available
LogP2.2Not Available
Experimental Chromatographic Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

Adduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
[M+H]+CBM163.030932474
[M+H]+Not Available161.869http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000831
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.2 g/LALOGPS
logP10(2.04) g/LALOGPS
logP10(2.3) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-3.1) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.27 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity70.27 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.1 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+163.99631661259
DarkChem[M-H]-162.56131661259
DeepCCS[M+H]+167.04830932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
TolbutamideCCCCNC(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C13550.1Standard polar33892256
TolbutamideCCCCNC(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C11669.9Standard non polar33892256
TolbutamideCCCCNC(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C12257.1Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Tolbutamide,1TMS,isomer #1CCCCN(C(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1)[Si](C)(C)C2314.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Tolbutamide,1TMS,isomer #1CCCCN(C(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1)[Si](C)(C)C2304.2Standard non polar33892256
Tolbutamide,1TMS,isomer #1CCCCN(C(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1)[Si](C)(C)C3050.5Standard polar33892256
Tolbutamide,1TMS,isomer #2CCCCNC(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C12294.8Semi standard non polar33892256
Tolbutamide,1TMS,isomer #2CCCCNC(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C12200.2Standard non polar33892256
Tolbutamide,1TMS,isomer #2CCCCNC(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C13085.4Standard polar33892256
Tolbutamide,2TMS,isomer #1CCCCN(C(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1)[Si](C)(C)C2231.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Tolbutamide,2TMS,isomer #1CCCCN(C(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1)[Si](C)(C)C2441.6Standard non polar33892256
Tolbutamide,2TMS,isomer #1CCCCN(C(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1)[Si](C)(C)C2828.3Standard polar33892256
Tolbutamide,1TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCN(C(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2537.9Semi standard non polar33892256
Tolbutamide,1TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCN(C(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2531.4Standard non polar33892256
Tolbutamide,1TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCN(C(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3077.1Standard polar33892256
Tolbutamide,1TBDMS,isomer #2CCCCNC(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C12548.9Semi standard non polar33892256
Tolbutamide,1TBDMS,isomer #2CCCCNC(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C12430.5Standard non polar33892256
Tolbutamide,1TBDMS,isomer #2CCCCNC(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C13115.2Standard polar33892256
Tolbutamide,2TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCN(C(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2742.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Tolbutamide,2TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCN(C(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2903.9Standard non polar33892256
Tolbutamide,2TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCN(C(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2951.3Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4m-9620000000-80b8e46fa29dc771af142017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide LC-ESI-qTof , Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-0190000000-7ff8ebe7a2c8d9b989ec2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide LC-ESI-qTof , Positive-QTOFsplash10-05fr-1920000000-defac8a82087405b74df2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-0190000000-7ff8ebe7a2c8d9b989ec2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide , positive-QTOFsplash10-05fr-1920000000-defac8a82087405b74df2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 60V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0aou-9700000000-4ddde0b1cb5c52cde5e92021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 45V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0avi-6900000000-7a66f373c605dedbdaca2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 15V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00di-9630000000-2017f03bf9e28638cee82021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 30V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-05fr-8900000000-2a951aa06eb51e26b18d2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 90V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-c10cd87bcaddb53a298d2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 75V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9200000000-9e34241200e278e9e0642021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00di-9610000000-75888e656e58b74cf3ee2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0596-9200000000-f75d5d5d54176257be852021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0930000000-8d71b509124429eea6292021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a6r-6900000000-96b6cdfc78c2cfa0a77b2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0900000000-a8b79ea32dfd9e27bdda2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 15V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0930000000-9f5b4960f823b6c7b58a2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 60V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0ab9-1900000000-d6a5548288198dd868022021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 75V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a6r-5900000000-93ef59adf841910710872021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 90V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-06vi-9500000000-9a73e07e1dc0aa3f9d1d2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00di-9780000000-b9e42f04441a4750b9a92016-08-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-05fr-9400000000-731942a1402d4374a5db2016-08-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4l-9000000000-11ce33c22d2669eeac482016-08-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-01b9-2590000000-33755b9fecfcb717c0512016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-2910000000-c5e9ee1500acc1154c872016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Tolbutamide 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00fu-9700000000-97a794e19f654b96f09b2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01124 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01124 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01124
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5304
KEGG Compound IDC07148
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTolbutamide
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5505
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID27999
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDTOLBUTAMIDE
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Brunk E, Sahoo S, Zielinski DC, Altunkaya A, Drager A, Mih N, Gatto F, Nilsson A, Preciat Gonzalez GA, Aurich MK, Prlic A, Sastry A, Danielsdottir AD, Heinken A, Noronha A, Rose PW, Burley SK, Fleming RMT, Nielsen J, Thiele I, Palsson BO: Recon3D enables a three-dimensional view of gene variation in human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2018 Mar;36(3):272-281. doi: 10.1038/nbt.4072. Epub 2018 Feb 19. [PubMed:29457794 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 11 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Lasker JM, Wester MR, Aramsombatdee E, Raucy JL: Characterization of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 from human liver: respective roles in microsomal tolbutamide, S-mephenytoin, and omeprazole hydroxylations. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998 May 1;353(1):16-28. [PubMed:9578596 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Lasker JM, Wester MR, Aramsombatdee E, Raucy JL: Characterization of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 from human liver: respective roles in microsomal tolbutamide, S-mephenytoin, and omeprazole hydroxylations. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998 May 1;353(1):16-28. [PubMed:9578596 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular weight:
55710.075
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific function:
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. This channel is activated by internal ATP and can be blocked by external barium
Gene Name:
KCNJ1
Uniprot ID:
P48048
Molecular weight:
44794.6
References
  1. Proks P, Jones P, Ashcroft FM: Interaction of stilbene disulphonates with cloned K(ATP) channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Mar;132(5):973-82. [PubMed:11226127 ]
  2. Smith PA, Proks P: Inhibition of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel from mouse pancreatic beta-cells by surfactants. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Jun;124(3):529-39. [PubMed:9647478 ]
  3. Liu X, Singh BB, Ambudkar IS: ATP-dependent activation of K(Ca) and ROMK-type K(ATP) channels in human submandibular gland ductal cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Aug 27;274(35):25121-9. [PubMed:10455193 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Putative subunit of the beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP). Regulator of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and insulin release
Gene Name:
ABCC8
Uniprot ID:
Q09428
Molecular weight:
177006.4
References
  1. Mizuno CS, Chittiboyina AG, Kurtz TW, Pershadsingh HA, Avery MA: Type 2 diabetes and oral antihyperglycemic drugs. Curr Med Chem. 2008;15(1):61-74. [PubMed:18220763 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost
Gene Name:
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID:
O94956
Molecular weight:
76697.9
References
  1. Satoh H, Yamashita F, Tsujimoto M, Murakami H, Koyabu N, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Citrus juices inhibit the function of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP-B. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):518-23. Epub 2005 Jan 7. [PubMed:15640378 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular weight:
74144.1
References
  1. Shitara Y, Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Kato Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Itoh T, Sugiyama Y: Comparative inhibitory effects of different compounds on rat oatpl (slc21a1)- and Oatp2 (Slc21a5)-mediated transport. Pharm Res. 2002 Feb;19(2):147-53. [PubMed:11883641 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products
Gene Name:
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID:
P46059
Molecular weight:
78805.3
References
  1. Terada T, Sawada K, Saito H, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Inhibitory effect of novel oral hypoglycemic agent nateglinide (AY4166) on peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Mar 24;392(1-2):11-7. [PubMed:10748266 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides
Gene Name:
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID:
Q16348
Molecular weight:
81782.8
References
  1. Terada T, Sawada K, Saito H, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Inhibitory effect of novel oral hypoglycemic agent nateglinide (AY4166) on peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Mar 24;392(1-2):11-7. [PubMed:10748266 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8
References
  1. Uwai Y, Saito H, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Inhibitory effect of anti-diabetic agents on rat organic anion transporter rOAT1. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 16;398(2):193-7. [PubMed:10854830 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 11 proteins in total.