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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:41:53 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15582
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSuramin
DescriptionSuramin, also known as naganol or naphuride, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzanilides. These are aromatic compounds containing an anilide group in which the carboxamide group is substituted with a benzene ring. They have the general structure RNC(=O)R', where R,R'= benzene. Suramin's action in the treatment of onchocerciasis is macrofilaricidal and partially microfilaricidal. Suramin is a drug which is used for treatment of human sleeping sickness, onchocerciasis and other diseases caused by trypanosomes and worms. Suramin is manufactured by Bayer in Germany as Germanin®. Suramin is an extremely strong acidic compound (based on its pKa). It also can inhibit follicle-stimulating hormone receptors. It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties. The mechanism is unknown, but the trypanocidal activity may be due to the inhibition of enzymes involved with the oxidation of reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which functions as a co-enzyme in many cellular reactions, such as respiration and glycolysis, in the trypanosome parasite. It may also act as an antagonist of P2 receptors and as an agonist of Ryanodine receptors.
8,8'-[CARBONYLBIS[imino-3,1-phenylenecarbonylimino(4-methyl-3,1-phenylene)carbonylimino]]bis-1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonIC ACIDChEBI
8,8'-[CARBONYLBIS[imino-3,1-phenylenecarbonylimino(4-methyl-3,1-phenylene)carbonylimino]]bis-1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulphonic acidGenerator
Bayer 205HMDB
Sodium suraminHMDB
Monosodium salt suraminHMDB
Hexasodium salt suraminHMDB
Suramin, hexasodium saltHMDB
Salt suramin, hexasodiumHMDB
Salt suramin, monosodiumHMDB
Sodium, suraminHMDB
Suramin sodiumHMDB
Suramin, monosodium saltHMDB
Chemical FormulaC51H40N6O23S6
Average Molecular Weight1297.28
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1296.046905756
IUPAC Name8-{4-methyl-3-[3-({[3-({2-methyl-5-[(4,6,8-trisulfonaphthalen-1-yl)carbamoyl]phenyl}carbamoyl)phenyl]carbamoyl}amino)benzamido]benzamido}naphthalene-1,3,5-trisulfonic acid
Traditional Namesuramin
CAS Registry Number145-63-1
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzanilides. These are aromatic compounds containing an anilide group in which the carboxamide group is substituted with a benzene ring. They have the general structure RNC(=O)R', where R,R'= benzene.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassAnilides
Direct ParentBenzanilides
Alternative Parents
  • Benzanilide
  • Naphthalene sulfonate
  • 1-naphthalene sulfonic acid or derivatives
  • 2-naphthalene sulfonic acid or derivatives
  • Naphthalene sulfonic acid or derivatives
  • 1-naphthalene sulfonate
  • 2-naphthalene sulfonate
  • N-phenylurea
  • Naphthalene
  • P-toluamide
  • Toluamide
  • Benzamide
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • 1-sulfo,2-unsubstituted aromatic compound
  • Arylsulfonic acid or derivatives
  • Benzoyl
  • Toluene
  • Sulfonyl
  • Organosulfonic acid
  • Organosulfonic acid or derivatives
  • Organic sulfonic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxamide group
  • Urea
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Biological location:


Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.0087 g/LNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0087 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-3.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count23ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count12ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area483.75 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count16ChemAxon
Refractivity314.9 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability120.22 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings8ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0032-0090013100-eb8fb42b491e752edbdcSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-0290048610-b9492b764ed1509a1378Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uk9-0373295240-a868fca31c5bc9d10337Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000t-0090016000-e9e628ec972887de519cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-1070139000-847f410d8e31ba88b008Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9163268000-de68781096a01c0b0b1cSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB04786 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB04786 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB04786
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5168
KEGG Compound IDC07974
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSuramin
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5361
ChEBI ID45906
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available


General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Selectively hydrolyzes arachidonyl phospholipids in the sn-2 position releasing arachidonic acid. Together with its lysophospholipid activity, it is implicated in the initiation of the inflammatory response.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Vieira DS, Aragao EA, Lourenzoni MR, Ward RJ: Mapping of suramin binding sites on the group IIA human secreted phospholipase A2. Bioorg Chem. 2009 Apr;37(2):41-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2009.01.002. Epub 2009 Feb 3. [PubMed:19251299 ]
  2. Aragao EA, Chioato L, Ferreira TL, de Medeiros AI, Secatto A, Faccioli LH, Ward RJ: Suramin inhibits macrophage activation by human group IIA phospholipase A2, but does not affect bactericidal activity of the enzyme. Inflamm Res. 2009 Apr;58(4):210-7. doi: 10.1007/s00011-008-8137-z. [PubMed:19169647 ]
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
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  1. Murakami MT, Arruda EZ, Melo PA, Martinez AB, Calil-Elias S, Tomaz MA, Lomonte B, Gutierrez JM, Arni RK: Inhibition of myotoxic activity of Bothrops asper myotoxin II by the anti-trypanosomal drug suramin. J Mol Biol. 2005 Jul 15;350(3):416-26. [PubMed:15961104 ]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes cerebroside sulfate.
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Molecular weight:
  1. Constantopoulos G, Rees S, Cragg BG, Barranger JA, Brady RO: Effect of suramin on the activities of degradative enzymes of sphingolipids in rats. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1981 Apr;32(1):87-97. [PubMed:7291729 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for ATP and UTP coupled to G-proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The affinity range is UTP = ATP > ATP-gamma-S >> 2-methylthio-ATP = ADP
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  1. Charlton SJ, Brown CA, Weisman GA, Turner JT, Erb L, Boarder MR: PPADS and suramin as antagonists at cloned P2Y- and P2U-purinoceptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Jun;118(3):704-10. [PubMed:8762097 ]
  2. Bogdanov YD, Wildman SS, Clements MP, King BF, Burnstock G: Molecular cloning and characterization of rat P2Y4 nucleotide receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Jun;124(3):428-30. [PubMed:9647463 ]
  3. Trujillo CA, Nery AA, Martins AH, Majumder P, Gonzalez FA, Ulrich H: Inhibition mechanism of the recombinant rat P2X(2) receptor in glial cells by suramin and TNP-ATP. Biochemistry. 2006 Jan 10;45(1):224-33. [PubMed:16388598 ]
  4. Churchill GC, Louis CF: Stimulation of P2U purinergic or alpha 1A adrenergic receptors mobilizes Ca2+ in lens cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1997 Apr;38(5):855-65. [PubMed:9112981 ]
  5. Homma R, Kimoto T, Niimura Y, Krivosheev A, Hara T, Ohta Y, Kawato S: Real-time fluorescence analysis on molecular mechanisms for regulation of cytochrome P450scc activity upon steroidogenic stimulation in adrenocortical cells. J Inorg Biochem. 2000 Nov;82(1-4):171-80. [PubMed:11132624 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for follicle-stimulating hormone. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylate cyclase
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. McGeary RP, Bennett AJ, Tran QB, Cosgrove KL, Ross BP: Suramin: clinical uses and structure-activity relationships. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Nov;8(13):1384-94. [PubMed:18991754 ]
  2. Bose CK: Follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) antagonist and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). J Exp Ther Oncol. 2007;6(3):201-4. [PubMed:17552360 ]
General function:
Involved in calcium channel activity
Specific function:
Communication between transverse-tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Contraction of skeletal muscle is triggered by release of calcium ions from SR following depolarization of T-tubules
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  1. Wolner I, Kassack MU, Ullmann H, Karel A, Hohenegger M: Use-dependent inhibition of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor by the suramin analogue NF676. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Oct;146(4):525-33. [PubMed:16056233 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
NAD-dependent lysine demalonylase and desuccinylase that specifically removes malonyl and succinyl groups on target proteins. Activates CPS1 and contributes to the regulation of blood ammonia levels during prolonged fasting: acts by mediating desuccinylation of CPS1, thereby increasing CPS1 activity in response to elevated NAD levels during fasting. Has weak NAD-dependent protein deacetylase activity; however this activity may not be physiologically relevant in vivo. Can deacetylate cytochrome c (CYCS) and a number of other proteins in vitro.
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Molecular weight:
  1. Schuetz A, Min J, Antoshenko T, Wang CL, Allali-Hassani A, Dong A, Loppnau P, Vedadi M, Bochkarev A, Sternglanz R, Plotnikov AN: Structural basis of inhibition of the human NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT5 by suramin. Structure. 2007 Mar;15(3):377-89. [PubMed:17355872 ]