You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-11 20:06:08 UTC
Update Date2021-09-07 17:05:34 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB35155
Metabolite Identification
Common Namebeta-Geraniol
Descriptionbeta-Geraniol, also known as (E)-nerol, the isomer of nerol (or geranyl alcohol, is a monoterpenoid alcohol. It belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyclic monoterpenoids. These are monoterpenes that do not contain a cycle. Monoterpenoids are terpenes that contain 10 carbon atoms and are comprised of two isoprene units. The biosynthesis of monoterpenes is known to occur mainly through the methyl-erythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway in the plastids (PMID:7640522 ). Geranyl diphosphate (GPP) is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of cyclic monoterpenes. GPP undergoes several cyclization reactions to yield a diverse number of cyclic arrangements. beta-Geraniol is an isoprenoid lipid molecule that is very hydrophobic, practically insoluble in water, and relatively neutral. beta-Geraniol has a sweet, citrus, and floral taste. beta-Geraniol is found in highest concentrations in common grapes, black walnuts, and common thymes and in lower concentrations in cardamoms, common oregano, and gingers. beta-Geraniol has also been detected in lemon verbena, oval-leaf huckleberries, common pea, sweet cherries, and nopals. This could make beta-geraniol a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. It is found in as an alcohol and as its ester in many essential oils including geranium oil. It is the primary part of rose oil, palmarosa oil, and citronella oil (Java type) and occurs in small quantities in geranium, lemon, and many other essential oils. Geraniol is a monoterpenoid and an alcohol found in cannabis plants (PMID:6991645 ). Because it has a rose-like odor, it is commonly used in perfumes. It is used to create flavors such as peach, raspberry, grapefruit, red apple, plum, lime, orange, lemon, watermelon, pineapple, and blueberry. Geraniol is produced by the scent glands of honeybees to mark nectar-bearing flowers and locate the entrances to their hives (http//doi:10.1051/apido:19900403).
Geranyl alcoholChEBI
trans-3,7-Dimethy- octa-2,6-dien-1-olHMDB
Geraniol, (Z)-isomerMeSH
Geraniol, 1-(14)C-labeled, (e)-isomerMeSH
Geraniol, 2-(14)C-labeled, (e)-isomerMeSH
Geraniol, titanium (4+) saltMeSH
Geraniol, (e)-isomerMeSH
Chemical FormulaC10H18O
Average Molecular Weight154.253
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight154.1357652
IUPAC Name(2E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-ol
Traditional Namegeraniol
CAS Registry Number106-24-1
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyclic monoterpenoids. These are monoterpenes that do not contain a cycle.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassMonoterpenoids
Direct ParentAcyclic monoterpenoids
Alternative Parents
  • Acyclic monoterpenoid
  • Fatty alcohol
  • Fatty acyl
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point< -15 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.1 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP3.56Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.37 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.33ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity51.18 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability19.67 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon


Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-002f-9800000000-16b748da465c428492a42014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-9000000000-25934c23f4bc9ba871422017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-9000000000-a4d79e7813b94cf0d54b2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-9100000000-3a5359aae818f9966cbd2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kf-9200000000-4a8a23071f388f4464512017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-9100000000-f24e92e3c3efdc35a6062017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-9100000000-d8e4f64753ef594f6d402017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-9000000000-2bce8c0905dd12aa5dac2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-002f-9800000000-16b748da465c428492a42017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-4900000000-7e43c8601ed65028cae52017-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-014u-9300000000-c85bc4c928fbf7d824e82016-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-030c-9520000000-69b7fbbb25764f7b612e2017-10-06View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-014l-9100000000-f59382e51acd0b5402042014-09-20View Spectrum


Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 10V, negativesplash10-0a4i-1900000000-710389d2548f45d605022020-07-21View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 4V, positivesplash10-001r-9500000000-d864036a8f8b4cdb20ae2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 5V, positivesplash10-001r-9400000000-e3661fd0b608943d6b6c2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 7V, positivesplash10-001i-9200000000-d748b4cd92b7c69ffee32020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 10V, positivesplash10-001i-9100000000-b6abc8d3af3aa99879b42020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 15V, positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-710e0ba546f9b86b8e402020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 17V, positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-4cc179896d05162706592020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 20V, positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-7f3a48636d9da2cda8212020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 23V, positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-4b196d3d8e84ecd0e9f32020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 25V, positivesplash10-003r-9000000000-718f1d4e975f4b2446d12020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 27V, positivesplash10-003u-9000000000-2e43acc8a377504a43292020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 30V, positivesplash10-005c-9000000000-fe7ffaf2c7e121c33b7c2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 33V, positivesplash10-005c-9000000000-467c307d1f0822b86ea02020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 35V, positivesplash10-005c-9000000000-5939202301ea6107df2c2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 40V, positivesplash10-002f-9000000000-0e13687577d30f6265cc2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 45V, positivesplash10-0f96-9000000000-e478c8b2587c1134117d2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Orbitrap 1V, positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-5f3fc91bdf843e40a2662020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Orbitrap 1V, positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-ab16b7d86a06d659d4f32020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Orbitrap 2V, positivesplash10-000i-3900000000-4dd10bbea41237cba5352020-07-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-1900000000-3d437630e5bec67a7e072016-08-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-052r-8900000000-0e505c85cec6344cab5c2016-08-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0gb9-9100000000-c7400df359a9559bd5942016-08-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-113756054eed13d33ee42016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0fk9-0900000000-dea43b41c5b791cef9d22016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0aou-9800000000-c028a2bd6550260942512016-08-03View Spectrum


Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)2014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 25.16 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)2014-09-23View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Saliva
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB013792
KNApSAcK IDC00000845
Chemspider ID13849989
KEGG Compound IDC01500
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGeraniol
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound637566
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17447
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  2. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  3. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  4. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  5. McGarvey DJ, Croteau R: Terpenoid metabolism. Plant Cell. 1995 Jul;7(7):1015-26. doi: 10.1105/tpc.7.7.1015. [PubMed:7640522 ]
  6. Turner CE, Elsohly MA, Boeren EG: Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XVII. A review of the natural constituents. J Nat Prod. 1980 Mar-Apr;43(2):169-234. doi: 10.1021/np50008a001. [PubMed:6991645 ]
  7. (). Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.. .
  8. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.