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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-12 03:19:10 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 06:34:44 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0041627
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB41627
Metabolite Identification
Common Namebeta-Lactose
Descriptionbeta-Lactose, also known as galbeta1-4glcbeta or b-D-lactose, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-glycosyl compounds. These are glycoside in which a sugar group is bonded through one carbon to another group via a O-glycosidic bond. beta-Lactose is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). Outside of the human body, beta-Lactose is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as baby foods, dried milks, and whey and in a lower concentration in other fermented milks, sausages, and yogurts. beta-Lactose has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as brazil nuts, cottonseeds, anguilliformes (eel), chickpea, and burbots. This could make beta-lactose a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. The beta-anomer of lactose.
Structure
Data?1563863684
Synonyms
ValueSource
4-O-beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoseChEBI
beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucoseChEBI
beta-D-Galp-(1->4)-beta-D-GLCPChEBI
beta-D-LactoseChEBI
Galb1-4GLCBChEBI
Galbeta1-4glcbetaChEBI
LACTOSEChEBI
4-O-b-D-Galactopyranosyl-b-D-glucopyranoseGenerator
4-O-Β-D-galactopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoseGenerator
b-D-Galactopyranosyl-(1->4)-b-D-glucoseGenerator
Β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->4)-β-D-glucoseGenerator
b-D-Galp-(1->4)-b-D-GLCPGenerator
Β-D-galp-(1->4)-β-D-GLCPGenerator
b-D-LactoseGenerator
Β-D-lactoseGenerator
b-LactoseGenerator
Β-lactoseGenerator
beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucopyranoseHMDB
Anhydrous lactoseMeSH
Lactose, anhydrousMeSH
Chemical FormulaC12H22O11
Average Molecular Weight342.2965
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight342.116211546
IUPAC Name(2R,3R,4S,5R,6S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}oxane-3,4,5-triol
Traditional Nameβ-D-lactose
CAS Registry Number5965-66-2
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](O[C@H]2[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)O[C@@H]2CO)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C12H22O11/c13-1-3-5(15)6(16)9(19)12(22-3)23-10-4(2-14)21-11(20)8(18)7(10)17/h3-20H,1-2H2/t3-,4-,5+,6+,7-,8-,9-,10-,11-,12+/m1/s1
InChI KeyGUBGYTABKSRVRQ-DCSYEGIMSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-glycosyl compounds. These are glycoside in which a sugar group is bonded through one carbon to another group via a O-glycosidic bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentO-glycosyl compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Disaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility586 g/LALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-4.7ChemAxon
logS0.23ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.25ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count11ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area189.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity68.34 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability30.99 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 8 TMS)splash10-0gb9-1983000000-e184694c56f5ca3eaf44Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 8 TMS)splash10-0uxr-1983000000-6d13b583508b156699cbSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03e9-4897000000-332d470623cd7f1e1cedSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-014i-2421129000-d695c36163c25ae6aca5Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03gl-0907000000-a1de7813fbe8b5258c10Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03e9-0900000000-79cc5059a3f338e8c1ddSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-3900000000-851d0bc84d91b6e09579Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-002f-0749000000-af1d18f2bc3ab8e02883Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0200-2902000000-67218697344afb9e70faSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-01td-4900000000-40aa2d8125769803cfbbSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB021790
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5904
KEGG Compound IDC01970
BioCyc IDCPD-15971
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLactose
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound6134
PDB IDLAT
ChEBI ID36218
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. (). Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.. .

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
Reactions
beta-Lactose + Water → beta-D-Galactose + D-Glucosedetails
beta-Lactose + Water → alpha-D-Glucose + beta-D-Galactosedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
Responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids. Can produce lactose.
Gene Name:
B4GALT2
Uniprot ID:
O60909
Molecular weight:
41971.815
Reactions
Uridine diphosphategalactose + D-Glucose → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + beta-Lactosedetails
General function:
Involved in lactose synthase activity
Specific function:
Regulatory subunit of lactose synthase, changes the substrate specificity of galactosyltransferase in the mammary gland making glucose a good acceptor substrate for this enzyme. This enables LS to synthesize lactose, the major carbohydrate component of milk. In other tissues, galactosyltransferase transfers galactose onto the N-acetylglucosamine of the oligosaccharide chains in glycoproteins.
Gene Name:
LALBA
Uniprot ID:
P00709
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Uridine diphosphategalactose + D-Glucose → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + beta-Lactosedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
The Golgi complex form catalyzes the production of lactose in the lactating mammary gland and could also be responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids. The cell surface form functions as a recognition molecule during a variety of cell to cell and cell to matrix interactions, as those occurring during development and egg fertilization, by binding to specific oligosaccharide ligands on opposing cells or in the extracellular matrix.
Gene Name:
B4GALT1
Uniprot ID:
P15291
Molecular weight:
43919.895
Reactions
Uridine diphosphategalactose + D-Glucose → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + beta-Lactosedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Cleaves beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues from gangliosides, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans. Isoform 2 has no beta-galactosidase catalytic activity, but plays functional roles in the formation of extracellular elastic fibers (elastogenesis) and in the development of connective tissue. Seems to be identical to the elastin-binding protein (EBP), a major component of the non-integrin cell surface receptor expressed on fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, chondroblasts, leukocytes, and certain cancer cell types. In elastin producing cells, associates with tropoelastin intracellularly and functions as a recycling molecular chaperone which facilitates the secretions of tropoelastin and its assembly into elastic fibers.
Gene Name:
GLB1
Uniprot ID:
P16278
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
beta-Lactose + Water → alpha-D-Glucose + beta-D-Galactosedetails