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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-13 11:46:51 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:57:13 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB41899
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGadolinium
DescriptionAlthough gadolinium agents have proved useful for patients with renal impairment, in patients with severe renal failure requiring dialysis, there is a risk of a rare but serious illnesses, called nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) or nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy, that has been linked to the use of four gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents. The disease resembles scleromyxedema and to some extent scleroderma. It may occur months after contrast has been injected. Its association with gadolinium and not the carrier molecule is confirmed by its occurrence in from contrast materials in which gadolinium is carried by very different carrier molecules. Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64. It is a silvery-white, malleable and ductile rare-earth metal. It is found in nature only in combined (salt) form. Gadolinium was first detected spectroscopically in 1880 by de Marignac who separated its oxide and is credited with its discovery. It is named for gadolinite, one of the minerals in which it was found, in turn named for chemist Johan Gadolin. The metal was isolated by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886. Gadolinium as a phosphor is also used in other imaging. In X-ray systems, gadolinium is contained in the phosphor layer, suspended in a polymer matrix at the detector. Terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S: Tb) at the phosphor layer converts the X-rays released from the source into light. This material emits green light at 540 nm due to the presence of Tb3+, which is very useful for enhancing the imaging quality. The energy conversion of Gd is up to 20%, which means that one-fifth of the X-rays striking the phosphor layer can be converted into light photons. Gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (Gd2SiO5, GSO; usually doped by 0.1-1% of Ce) is a single crystal that is used as a scintillator in medical imaging such as positron emission tomography or for detecting neutrons. Gadolinium is a constituent in many minerals such as monazite and bastnasite, which are oxides. The metal is too reactive to exist naturally. Ironically, as noted above, the mineral gadolinite actually contains only traces of Gd. The abundance in the earth crust is about 6.2 mg/kg. The main mining areas are China, USA, Brazil, Sri Lanka, India and Australia with reserves expected to exceed one million tonnes. World production of pure gadolinium is about 400 tonnes per year. Gadolinium is a silvery-white malleable and ductile rare-earth metal. It crystallizes in hexagonal, close-packed 1- form at room temperature, but, when heated to temperatures above 1235 °C, it transforms into its 2- form, which has a body-centered cubic structure. Gadolinium is a strong reducing agent, which reduces oxides of several metals into their elements. Gadolinium is quite electropositive and reacts slowly with cold water and quite quickly with hot water to form gadolinium hydroxide:
Motexafin gadoliniumHMDB
Chemical FormulaGd
Average Molecular Weight157.25
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight157.924100533
IUPAC Namegadolinium
Traditional Namegadolinium
CAS Registry Number7440-54-2
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous lanthanide compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms, with the largest atom being a lanthanide atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous lanthanide compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous lanthanide compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
  • Homogeneous lanthanide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Physiological effectNot Available
ProcessNot Available
Physical Properties
Experimental Molecular Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices


MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Gadolinium[Gd]697.9Standard polar33892256
Gadolinium[Gd]241.4Standard non polar33892256
Gadolinium[Gd]69.7Semi standard non polar33892256

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Gadolinium 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-572da205f8e2e1264df12017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Gadolinium 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-572da205f8e2e1264df12017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Gadolinium 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-572da205f8e2e1264df12017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Gadolinium 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-d2f64f0c400dfa0135032017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Gadolinium 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-d2f64f0c400dfa0135032017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Gadolinium 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-d2f64f0c400dfa0135032017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB12091
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB030054
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID22418
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGadolinium
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound23982
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID33375
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available