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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-13 11:48:10 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 06:35:14 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB41923
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMephedrone
DescriptionIn 2010, unconfirmed reports speculated about the role mephedrone has played in the deaths of several young people in the UK. By July 2010, mephedrone had been alleged to be involved in 52 fatalities in the UK, but detected in only 38 of these cases. Of the nine that coroners had finished investigating, two were caused directly by mephedrone. The first death reported to be caused by mephedrone use was that of 46-year-old, John Sterling Smith, who had underlying health problems and repeatedly injected the drug. A report in Forensic Science International in August 2010 stated mephedrone intoxication has been recorded as the cause of death in two cases in Scotland. Post mortem samples showed the concentration of mephedrone in their blood was 22 mg/l in one case and 3.3 mg/l in the other. The death of a teenager in the UK in November 2009 was widely reported as being caused by mephedrone, but a report by the coroner concluded she had died from natural causes. In March 2010, the deaths of two teenagers in Scunthorpe were widely reported by the media to be caused by mephedrone. Toxicology reports showed the teenagers had not taken any mephedrone and had died as a result of consuming alcohol and the heroin substitute methadone. According to Fiona Measham, a criminologist who is a member of the ACMD, the reporting of the unconfirmed deaths by newspapers followed 'the usual cycle of exaggeration, distortion, inaccuracy and sensationalism'' associated with the reporting of recreational drug use. Mephedrone is a white substance. It is sold most commonly as crystals or a powder, but also in the form of capsules or pills. It can have a distinctive odour, reported to range from a synthetic fishy smell to the smell of vanilla and bleach, stale urine, or electric circuit boards. Mephedrone is one of hundreds of designer drugs or legal highs that have been reported in recent years, including artificial chemicals such as synthetic cannabis and semisynthetic substances such as methylhexaneamine. These drugs are primarily developed to avoid being controlled by laws against illegal drugs, thus giving them the label of designer drugs. According to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, the synthesis of mephedrone was first reported in 1929 by Saem de Burnaga Sanchez in the Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, under the name 'toluyl-alpha-monomethylaminoethylcetone',:17 but the compound remained an obscure product of academia until 2003, when it was 're-discovered' and publicised by an underground chemist on The Hive website, working under the pseudonym 'Kinetic'. Mephedrone, also known as 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC), or 4-methylephedrone, is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes. Slang names include meph, drone, MCAT, meow meow, and bubble. It is reportedly manufactured in China and is chemically similar to the cathinone compounds found in the khat plant of eastern Africa. It comes in the form of tablets or a powder, which users can swallow, snort or inject, producing similar effects to MDMA, amphetamines, and cocaine.
MMCAT compoundHMDB
4-MMC CompoundHMDB
Chemical FormulaC11H15NO
Average Molecular Weight177.2429
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight177.115364107
IUPAC Name2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one
Traditional Namemephedrone
CAS Registry Number1189805-46-6
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkyl-phenylketones. These are aromatic compounds containing a ketone substituted by one alkyl group, and a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbonyl compounds
Direct ParentAlkyl-phenylketones
Alternative Parents
  • Alkyl-phenylketone
  • Phenylpropane
  • Benzoyl
  • Aryl alkyl ketone
  • Toluene
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Alpha-aminoketone
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Secondary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Biological location:


Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.72 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.66ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.1 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity54.13 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability20.66 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0aor-9600000000-99e304f4c8722d5f7b2fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-63a56a651f789a893e55Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-72c24c862242c481aca4Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-c5357ff91e06cdd98e2fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-a293b8fd331ba92afc2bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-ab08f3ff9c43c678a409Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-0e8d2be244e2c2b90065Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-c36f9c805707cdca4596Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0005-0900000000-0a4988d65ddec4e44b3dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-03bb00bf907535516e3dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-692e09986df677e5ecc1Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-33cea69ee5f543869c02Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-888d4a226b1d533a2ea2Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-5717c7c0504ffa0c6054Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0005-0900000000-f4e14927b85bb7d9e5b4Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-3fd3aa739f1f8f082f8dSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-c2af763936f70e0e62b9Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-2900000000-4dbb835577330ade2938Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0aou-9400000000-a67ebd5163dd4b071d47Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-67c1c193c4560d0eb743Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-8ada81709ad2898e4982Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00kf-8900000000-da4b7522d2d2139fc9b2Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB13108
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID21485694
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMephedrone
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound45266826
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID59331
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available