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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2021-02-24 01:46:50 UTC
Update Date2022-10-24 19:44:17 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAcetyl-D-carnitine
DescriptionAcetyl-D-carnitine is an acylcarnitine. More specifically, it is an acetic acid ester of carnitine. Acylcarnitines were first discovered more than 70 year ago (PMID: 13825279 ). It is believed that there are more than 1000 types of acylcarnitines in the human body. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups (organic acids and fatty acids) from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. This process is known as beta-oxidation. According to a recent review (PMID: 35710135 ), acylcarnitines (ACs) can be classified into 9 different categories depending on the type and size of their acyl-group: 1) short-chain ACs; 2) medium-chain ACs; 3) long-chain ACs; 4) very long-chain ACs; 5) hydroxy ACs; 6) branched chain ACs; 7) unsaturated ACs; 8) dicarboxylic ACs and 9) miscellaneous ACs. Short-chain ACs have acyl-groups with two to five carbons (C2-C5), medium-chain ACs have acyl-groups with six to thirteen carbons (C6-C13), long-chain ACs have acyl-groups with fourteen to twenty once carbons (C14-C21) and very long-chain ACs have acyl groups with more than 22 carbons. Acetyl-D-carnitine is therefore classified as a long chain AC. As a long-chain acylcarnitine Acetyl-D-carnitine is generally formed through esterification with long-chain fatty acids obtained from the diet. The main function of most long-chain acylcarnitines is to ensure long chain fatty acid transport into the mitochondria (PMID: 22804748 ). Altered levels of long-chain acylcarnitines can serve as useful markers for inherited disorders of long-chain fatty acid metabolism. In particular Acetyl-D-carnitine is elevated in the blood or plasma of individuals with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (PMID: 9034211 ), colorectal cancer (PMID: 25105552 ), short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (PMID: 11489939 ), paclitaxel induced neuropathy (PMID: 29946863 ), type 2 diabetes Mellitus (PMID: 28726959 ; PMID: 25964024 , PMID: 28726959 , PMID: 19369366 , PMID: 24358186 ), chronic heart failure (PMID: 22622056 ), ornithine transcarbamylase (PMID: 3346778 ), pre-diabetes (PMID: 23010998 , PMID: 24358186 ), type 1 diabetes mellitus (PMID: 16789638 ), methylmalonic acidemia (PMID: 8214594 ), myeloma (PMID: 30096165 ), and diastolic heart failure (PMID: 26010610 ). It is also decreased in the blood or plasma of individuals with 3-methyl-crotonyl-glycinuria (PMID: 25732994 ), antiviral drug induced neuropathy (PMID: 9030365 , PMID: 11364244 ), Alzheimer Disease (PMID: 27196316 ), major depressive disorder (PMID: 30061399 ), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 deficiency (PMID: 20543534 ), Familial Mediterranean Fever (PMID: 29900937 ), chronic fatigue syndrome (PMID: 9854142 ), methylmalonic acidemia (PMID: 15164354 ), hepatocellular carcinoma (PMID: 26976432 , PMID: 31662827 ), and coronary artery disease (PMID: 20173117 ). Acetyl-D-carnitine is elevated in the urine of individuals with colorectal cancer (25105552 ), uterine fibroids (32590215), heart failure (8070147), diabetes mellitus (10221661), and hepatocellular carcinoma (24923488). It is also decreased in the urine of individuals with carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 deficiency (20543534 ). Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I, EC: is involved in the synthesis of long-chain acylcarnitines (more than C12) on the mitochondrial outer membrane. Elevated serum/plasma levels of long-chain acylcarnitines are not only markers for incomplete FA oxidation but also are indicators of altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. High serum concentrations of long-chain acylcarnitines in the postprandial or fed state are markers of insulin resistance and arise from insulin's inability to inhibit CPT-1-dependent fatty acid metabolism in muscles and the heart (PMID: 19073774 ). Increased intracellular content of long-chain acylcarnitines is thought to serve as a feedback inhibition mechanism of insulin action (PMID: 23258903 ). In healthy subjects, increased concentrations of insulin effectively inhibits long-chain acylcarnitine production. Several studies have also found increased levels of circulating long-chain acylcarnitines in chronic heart failure patients (PMID: 26796394 ). The study of acylcarnitines is an active area of research and it is likely that many novel acylcarnitines will be discovered in the coming years. It is also likely that many novel roles in health and disease will be uncovered. An excellent review of the current state of knowledge for acylcarnitines is available (PMID: 35710135 ).
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC9H17NO4
Average Molecular Weight203.238
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight203.115758031
IUPAC Name(3S)-3-(acetyloxy)-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
Traditional Nameacetylcarnitine
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl carnitines. These are organic compounds containing a fatty acid with the carboxylic acid attached to carnitine through an ester bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acid esters
Direct ParentAcyl carnitines
Alternative Parents
  • Acyl-carnitine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic salt
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effectNot Available
ProcessNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Molecular Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.43 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity72.64 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability20.88 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices


MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Acetyl-D-carnitine[H][C@](CC([O-])=O)(C[N+](C)(C)C)OC(C)=O1839.0Standard polar33892256
Acetyl-D-carnitine[H][C@](CC([O-])=O)(C[N+](C)(C)C)OC(C)=O1117.2Standard non polar33892256
Acetyl-D-carnitine[H][C@](CC([O-])=O)(C[N+](C)(C)C)OC(C)=O1355.7Semi standard non polar33892256

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Acetyl-D-carnitine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Acetyl-D-carnitine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Acetyl-D-carnitine 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-3c13460eec4ce2002d262021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Acetyl-D-carnitine 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0udi-1090000000-2b69a1e2543749d994702021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Acetyl-D-carnitine 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-9d43a27ce302cf2b1aeb2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Acetyl-D-carnitine 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0090000000-71230651236adb31fa6f2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Acetyl-D-carnitine 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0f79-9050000000-2a63f200e23202870ebe2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Acetyl-D-carnitine 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-e9262cbaff8cb4ad0ba62021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB098089
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID17219
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound18230
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID86045
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
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