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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:41:40 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0001463
  • HMDB0006960
  • HMDB00125
  • HMDB01463
  • HMDB06960
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlutathione
DescriptionGlutathione is a compound synthesized from cysteine, perhaps the most important member of the body's toxic waste disposal team. Like cysteine, glutathione contains the crucial thiol (-SH) group that makes it an effective antioxidant. There are virtually no living organisms on this planet-animal or plant whose cells don't contain some glutathione. Scientists have speculated that glutathione was essential to the very development of life on earth. glutathione has many roles; in none does it act alone. It is a coenzyme in various enzymatic reactions. The most important of these are redox reactions, in which the thiol grouping on the cysteine portion of cell membranes protects against peroxidation; and conjugation reactions, in which glutathione (especially in the liver) binds with toxic chemicals in order to detoxify them. glutathione is also important in red and white blood cell formation and throughout the immune system. glutathione's clinical uses include the prevention of oxygen toxicity in hyperbaric oxygen therapy, treatment of lead and other heavy metal poisoning, lowering of the toxicity of chemotherapy and radiation in cancer treatments, and reversal of cataracts. ( glutathione participates in leukotriene synthesis and is a cofactor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. It is also important as a hydrophilic molecule that is added to lipophilic toxins and waste in the liver during biotransformation before they can become part of the bile. glutathione is also needed for the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a toxin produced as a by-product of metabolism. This detoxification reaction is carried out by the glyoxalase system. Glyoxalase I (EC catalyzes the conversion of methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione to S-D-Lactoyl-glutathione. Glyoxalase II (EC catalyzes the hydrolysis of S-D-Lactoyl-glutathione to glutathione and D-lactate. GSH is known as a substrate in both conjugation reactions and reduction reactions, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase enzymes in cytosol, microsomes, and mitochondria. However, it is also capable of participating in non-enzymatic conjugation with some chemicals, as in the case of n-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), the reactive cytochrome P450-reactive metabolite formed by acetaminophen, that becomes toxic when GSH is depleted by an overdose (of acetaminophen). glutathione in this capacity binds to NAPQI as a suicide substrate and in the process detoxifies it, taking the place of cellular protein thiol groups which would otherwise be covalently modified; when all GSH has been spent, NAPQI begins to react with the cellular proteins, killing the cells in the process. The preferred treatment for an overdose of this painkiller is the administration (usually in atomized form) of N-acetylcysteine, which is used by cells to replace spent GSSG and renew the usable GSH pool. (
Reduced glutathioneChEBI
Agifutol SHMDB
Bakezyme RXHMDB
Glutathione redHMDB
Glutathione reducedHMDB
L-Glutathione reduceHMDB
Red. glutathioneHMDB
Glutathione, reducedHMDB
gamma L Glu L cys glyHMDB
gamma L Glutamyl L cysteinylglycineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC10H17N3O6S
Average Molecular Weight307.323
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight307.083805981
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-4-{[(1R)-1-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl]-2-sulfanylethyl]carbamoyl}butanoic acid
Traditional Nameglutathione
CAS Registry Number70-18-8
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as peptides. Peptides are compounds containing an amide derived from two or more amino carboxylic acid molecules (the same or different) by formation of a covalent bond from the carbonyl carbon of one to the nitrogen atom of another.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative Parents
  • Alpha peptide
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Alkylthiol
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:


Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
Experimental Molecular Properties
Melting Point195 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility292.5 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.22ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area158.82 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity69.11 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.11 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Collision Cross Sections

NameAdductTypeData SourceValueReference
AllCCS[M-H]-ExperimentalNot Available161.9
AllCCS[M+H]+ExperimentalNot Available167.9
DarkChem[M+H]+PredictedNot Available170.64831661259
DarkChem[M+H]+PredictedNot Available170.64831661259
DarkChem[M-H]-PredictedNot Available165.02631661259
DarkChem[M-H]-PredictedNot Available165.02631661259
AllCCS[M+H]+PredictedNot Available165.42232859911
AllCCS[M-H]-PredictedNot Available165.65532859911

Retention Indices


Not Available




Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (x TMS)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-5841845f736f9a6676222014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (x TMS)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-bdecde153761cb67852e2014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-5841845f736f9a6676222017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-bdecde153761cb67852e2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-1910000000-52bc43dd913b68d74f842017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-08fs-3960000000-63ce34def2ae94b955152017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0pb9-0921000000-88168b0a9f5fc5fead3f2017-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-7890000000-5853006f66d946dd3d2e2016-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0596-9112300000-e82cf72540c283d8e3232017-10-06View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-06r6-9680000000-40610cc332244519108f2021-09-05View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9800000000-24fa3ff739ff064312ab2021-09-18View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-8900000000-5b42adf83e422cffefb62021-09-18View Spectrum


Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-3795000000-d019cd7dcbad1f8a9e782012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-9400000000-a83bf6292d41988256e32012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-305a92f8a9ffea58fa0e2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-e950bfc5867b391c69602012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0910000000-83f6c079d1112e74ecf42012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-003r-0910000000-5b243cf8bd357ab270b12012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-29ef335479f56b620d882012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0009001000-d1f5986166efa523d0242012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-056s-0495300000-dba7be381fd1ef7765272012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0920000000-de5b8a5a377324599b392012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-053r-0007920000-7500cef211e48c8ea2442012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0119003000-4eb7ed4e2a4cf6a83c662012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0uki-0290000000-6893386899c6eed6a1a62012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-05g0-0190000000-cacc2de4ab18ed59798b2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-6b4268add43ab66ef0152012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-08fr-0015009000-a01bdc13a34d6ce8416f2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0uki-0290000000-ea94ec8247b4e025adbe2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0039210000-e1f721157a9ea89959d62012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a59-0039210000-35ce450ea95922abf0e12012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-9b01fba547d1fcde113a2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0952000000-4a2a42699cf4aab2c5592012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-002f-2900000000-bd9ba27b48b1322b76182012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-004m-5900000000-cc7184d5bba50e6e49d02012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9200000000-aecd0eb18a10c3ffb7ab2012-08-31View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0729-4492000000-78a928563adf9038ba592016-09-12View Spectrum


Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, predicted)2012-12-04View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Placenta
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified4.35 +/- 2.10 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Male
BloodDetected and Quantified3.20 +/- 2.20 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Male
BloodDetected and Quantified1.0738-1.725 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified800.50 +/- 201.73 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.67 +/- 0.241 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
BloodDetected and Quantified12.5 +/- 5.2 uMInfant (0-1 year old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified10.9 +/- 4.5 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified12.00 +/- 3.00 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified12.8 +/- 4.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified37.03 +/- 4.76 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified3210 (1710-4710) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.2 +/- 0.16 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.35 +/- 0.40 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified7.47 +/- 6.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00976-0.0325 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.030 (0.005-0.085) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
UrineDetected and Quantified0.065 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified4.555-7.809 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleGlutathionuria details
BloodDetected and Quantified516.50 +/- 238.40 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.03 +/- 0.149 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
BloodDetected and Quantified30.22 +/- 2.55 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Canavan disease
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.19 +/- 0.05 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Brain injury
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified4.56 +/- 0.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Multiple sclerosis
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.58 +/- 1.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedMultiple sclerosis details
UrineDetected and Quantified27.984-40.674 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleGlutathionuria details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [PubMed:16139832 ]
  1. Ballesteros A, Summerfelt A, Du X, Jiang P, Chiappelli J, Tagamets M, O'Donnell P, Kochunov P, Hong LE: Electrophysiological intermediate biomarkers for oxidative stress in schizophrenia. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013 Nov;124(11):2209-15. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2013.05.021. Epub 2013 Jun 30. [PubMed:23823132 ]
  2. Fukushima T, Iizuka H, Yokota A, Suzuki T, Ohno C, Kono Y, Nishikiori M, Seki A, Ichiba H, Watanabe Y, Hongo S, Utsunomiya M, Nakatani M, Sadamoto K, Yoshio T: Quantitative analyses of schizophrenia-associated metabolites in serum: serum D-lactate levels are negatively correlated with gamma-glutamylcysteine in medicated schizophrenia patients. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 8;9(7):e101652. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101652. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25004141 ]
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency
  1. Schulman JD, Goodman SI, Mace JW, Patrick AD, Tietze F, Butler EJ: Glutathionuria: inborn error of metabolism due to tissue deficiency of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1975 Jul 8;65(1):68-74. [PubMed:238530 ]
Traumatic brain injury
  1. Bayir H, Kagan VE, Tyurina YY, Tyurin V, Ruppel RA, Adelson PD, Graham SH, Janesko K, Clark RS, Kochanek PM: Assessment of antioxidant reserves and oxidative stress in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. Pediatr Res. 2002 May;51(5):571-8. [PubMed:11978879 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Ravagna A, Bella R, Butterfield DA, Calvani M, Pennisi G, Giuffrida Stella AM: Disruption of thiol homeostasis and nitrosative stress in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active multiple sclerosis: evidence for a protective role of acetylcarnitine. Neurochem Res. 2003 Sep;28(9):1321-8. [PubMed:12938853 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00143
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB001498
KNApSAcK IDC00001518
Chemspider ID111188
KEGG Compound IDC00051
BiGG ID33669
Wikipedia LinkGlutathione
PubChem Compound124886
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16856
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00000060
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Djurhuus R, Segadal K, Svardal AM: Glutathione in blood cells decreases without DNA breaks after a simulated saturation dive to 250 msw. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006 Jun;77(6):597-604. [PubMed:16780237 ]
  2. Bayir H, Kagan VE, Tyurina YY, Tyurin V, Ruppel RA, Adelson PD, Graham SH, Janesko K, Clark RS, Kochanek PM: Assessment of antioxidant reserves and oxidative stress in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. Pediatr Res. 2002 May;51(5):571-8. [PubMed:11978879 ]
  3. Hung CR: Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct 7;11(37):5853-8. [PubMed:16270397 ]
  4. Grattagliano I, Portincasa P, Palmieri VO, Palasciano G: Contribution of canalicular glutathione efflux to bile formation. From cholestasis associated alterations to pharmacological intervention to modify bile flow. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord. 2005 Jun;5(2):153-61. [PubMed:16089347 ]
  5. Calvo-Marzal P, Chumbimuni-Torres KY, Hoehr NF, Kubota LT: Determination of glutathione in hemolysed erythrocyte with amperometric sensor based on TTF-TCNQ. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Sep;371(1-2):152-8. Epub 2006 May 2. [PubMed:16650398 ]
  6. Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Ravagna A, Bella R, Butterfield DA, Calvani M, Pennisi G, Giuffrida Stella AM: Disruption of thiol homeostasis and nitrosative stress in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active multiple sclerosis: evidence for a protective role of acetylcarnitine. Neurochem Res. 2003 Sep;28(9):1321-8. [PubMed:12938853 ]
  7. Sohlenius-Sternbeck AK, Schmidt S: Impaired glutathione-conjugating capacity by cryopreserved human and rat hepatocytes. Xenobiotica. 2005 Jul;35(7):727-36. [PubMed:16316931 ]
  8. Iida M, Yasuhara T, Mochizuki H, Takakura H, Yanagisawa T, Kubo H: Two Japanese brothers with hereditary gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(1):49-55. [PubMed:15702405 ]
  9. Briz O, Romero MR, Martinez-Becerra P, Macias RI, Perez MJ, Jimenez F, San Martin FG, Marin JJ: OATP8/1B3-mediated cotransport of bile acids and glutathione: an export pathway for organic anions from hepatocytes? J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 13;281(41):30326-35. Epub 2006 Jul 28. [PubMed:16877380 ]
  10. Czeczot H, Scibior D, Skrzycki M, Podsiad M: [Antioxidant barrier in patients with gastric cancer--preliminary study]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2005 Oct;19(112):521-5. [PubMed:16379316 ]
  11. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2:18. [PubMed:15882454 ]
  12. Czeczot H, Scibior D, Skrzycki M, Podsiad M: Glutathione and GSH-dependent enzymes in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Acta Biochim Pol. 2006;53(1):237-42. Epub 2006 Jan 9. [PubMed:16404476 ]
  13. Kawakami Y, Monobe M, Kuwabara K, Fujita T, Maeda M, Fujino O, Kojima S, Fukunaga Y: A comparative study of nitric oxide, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase activities in cerebrospinal fluid from children with convulsive diseases/children with aseptic meningitis. Brain Dev. 2006 May;28(4):243-6. Epub 2006 Jan 10. [PubMed:16376049 ]
  14. Kaynar H, Meral M, Turhan H, Keles M, Celik G, Akcay F: Glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, xanthine oxidase, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activities, total glutathione, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes of patients with small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Lett. 2005 Sep 28;227(2):133-9. Epub 2005 Jan 8. [PubMed:16112416 ]
  15. Tsai CC, Chen HS, Chen SL, Ho YP, Ho KY, Wu YM, Hung CC: Lipid peroxidation: a possible role in the induction and progression of chronic periodontitis. J Periodontal Res. 2005 Oct;40(5):378-84. [PubMed:16105090 ]
  16. Wielandt AM, Vollrath V, Farias M, Chianale J: Bucillamine induces glutathione biosynthesis via activation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006 Aug 14;72(4):455-62. Epub 2006 Jun 27. [PubMed:16806086 ]
  17. Oztezcan S, Balkan J, Dogru-Abbasoglu S, Cevikbas U, Aykac-Toker G, Uysal M: Resistance of erythrocytes to lipid peroxidation in cirrhotic rats. Arch Med Res. 2005 Sep-Oct;36(5):459-63. [PubMed:16099321 ]
  18. Schulpis KH, Papassotiriou I, Parthimos T, Tsakiris T, Tsakiris S: The effect of L-cysteine and glutathione on inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase activity by aspartame metabolites in human erythrocyte membrane. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 May;60(5):593-7. [PubMed:16391576 ]
  19. Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Hoffmaster KA, Nezasa K, Tallman MN, Brouwer KL: Integration of hepatic drug transporters and phase II metabolizing enzymes: mechanisms of hepatic excretion of sulfate, glucuronide, and glutathione metabolites. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2006 Apr;27(5):447-86. Epub 2006 Feb 10. [PubMed:16472997 ]
  20. Iwasaki Y, Hoshi M, Ito R, Saito K, Nakazawa H: Analysis of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in human saliva using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006 Jul 24;839(1-2):74-9. Epub 2006 Apr 18. [PubMed:16621738 ]
  21. Witschi A, Reddy S, Stofer B, Lauterburg BH: The systemic availability of oral glutathione. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;43(6):667-9. [PubMed:1362956 ]
  22. Yim CY, Hibbs JB Jr, McGregor JR, Galinsky RE, Samlowski WE: Use of N-acetyl cysteine to increase intracellular glutathione during the induction of antitumor responses by IL-2. J Immunol. 1994 Jun 15;152(12):5796-805. [PubMed:8207209 ]
  23. Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND: Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92. [PubMed:14988435 ]
  24. Struzynska L, Chalimoniuk M, Sulkowski G: The role of astroglia in Pb-exposed adult rat brain with respect to glutamate toxicity. Toxicology. 2005 Sep 1;212(2-3):185-94. [PubMed:15955607 ]
  25. Drevet JR: The antioxidant glutathione peroxidase family and spermatozoa: a complex story. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006 May 16;250(1-2):70-9. Epub 2006 Jan 19. [PubMed:16427183 ]
  26. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 57 proteins in total.


General function:
Involved in prostaglandin-E synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidoreduction of prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Glutathione + NADP → Oxidized glutathione + NADPHdetails
Glutathione + NAD → Oxidized glutathione + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glutathione + NADP → Oxidized glutathione + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
  1. Messarah M, Boulakoud MS, Boumendjel A, Abdennour C, El Feki A: The impact of thyroid activity variations on some oxidizing-stress parameters in rats. C R Biol. 2007 Feb;330(2):107-12. Epub 2006 Dec 12. [PubMed:17303537 ]
  2. Brocardo PS, Assini F, Franco JL, Pandolfo P, Muller YM, Takahashi RN, Dafre AL, Rodrigues AL: Zinc attenuates malathion-induced depressant-like behavior and confers neuroprotection in the rat brain. Toxicol Sci. 2007 May;97(1):140-8. Epub 2007 Feb 27. [PubMed:17327255 ]
  3. Guruvayoorappan C, Afira AH, Kuttan G: Antioxidant potential of Biophytum sensitivum extract in vitro and in vivo. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;17(4):255-67. [PubMed:17338281 ]
  4. Markaryan AA, Dubinskaya VA, Dargaeva TD: Peroxide-eliminating oxidoreductases as biosensors of antioxidant components of medicinal plants. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2006 Jul;142(1):55-6. [PubMed:17369902 ]
  5. Maity S, Roy S, Chaudhury S, Bhattacharya S: Antioxidant responses of the earthworm Lampito mauritii exposed to Pb and Zn contaminated soil. Environ Pollut. 2008 Jan;151(1):1-7. Epub 2007 May 23. [PubMed:17512104 ]
General function:
Involved in antioxidant activity
Specific function:
Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Can reduce H(2)O(2) and short chain organic, fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides. May play a role in the regulation of phospholipid turnover as well as in protection against oxidative injury.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in lactoylglutathione lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of hemimercaptal, formed from methylglyoxal and glutathione, to S-lactoylglutathione. Involved in the regulation of TNF-induced transcriptional activity of NF-kappa-B.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
S-Lactoylglutathione → Glutathione + Pyruvaldehydedetails
  1. Barati MT, Merchant ML, Kain AB, Jevans AW, McLeish KR, Klein JB: Proteomic analysis defines altered cellular redox pathways and advanced glycation end-product metabolism in glomeruli of db/db diabetic mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Oct;293(4):F1157-65. Epub 2007 Jul 3. [PubMed:17609286 ]
  2. Deponte M, Sturm N, Mittler S, Harner M, Mack H, Becker K: Allosteric coupling of two different functional active sites in monomeric Plasmodium falciparum glyoxalase I. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 28;282(39):28419-30. Epub 2007 Jul 30. [PubMed:17664277 ]
General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Serine hydrolase involved in the detoxification of formaldehyde.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
S-Formylglutathione + Water → Glutathione + Formic aciddetails
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Yurimoto H, Lee B, Yano T, Sakai Y, Kato N: Physiological role of S-formylglutathione hydrolase in C(1) metabolism of the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii. Microbiology. 2003 Aug;149(Pt 8):1971-9. [PubMed:12904537 ]
  4. Neben I, Sahm H, Kula MR: Studies on an enzyme, S-formylglutathione hydrolase, of the dissimilatory pathway of methanol in Candida boidinii. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 Jul 10;614(1):81-91. [PubMed:7397203 ]
  5. Sabatier L, Hoffschir F, al Achkar WA, Turleau C, de Grouchy J, Dutrillaux B: The decrease of catalase or esterase D activity in patients with microdeletions of 11p or 13q does not increase their radiosensitivity. Ann Genet. 1989;32(3):144-8. [PubMed:2554783 ]
General function:
Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Initiates extracellular glutathione (GSH) breakdown, provides cells with a local cysteine supply and contributes to maintain intracellular GSH level. It is part of the cell antioxidant defense mechanism. Catalyzes the transfer of the glutamyl moiety of glutathione to amino acids and dipeptide acceptors. Alternatively, glutathione can be hydrolyzed to give Cys-Gly and gamma glutamate. Isoform 3 seems to be inactive.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Glutathione + Water → Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
Glutathione + L-Amino acid → Cysteinylglycine + (5-L-Glutamyl)-L-amino aciddetails
  1. Ohkama-Ohtsu N, Zhao P, Xiang C, Oliver DJ: Glutathione conjugates in the vacuole are degraded by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT3 in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007 Mar;49(5):878-88. [PubMed:17316176 ]
  2. Martin MN, Saladores PH, Lambert E, Hudson AO, Leustek T: Localization of members of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase family identifies sites of glutathione and glutathione S-conjugate hydrolysis. Plant Physiol. 2007 Aug;144(4):1715-32. Epub 2007 Jun 1. [PubMed:17545509 ]
  3. Anilakumar KR, Nagaraj NS, Santhanam K: Reduction of hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rat liver by Emblica officinalis gaertn. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 May;45(5):450-4. [PubMed:17569287 ]
  4. Adamis PD, Panek AD, Eleutherio EC: Vacuolar compartmentation of the cadmium-glutathione complex protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae from mutagenesis. Toxicol Lett. 2007 Aug 30;173(1):1-7. Epub 2007 Jun 14. [PubMed:17644279 ]
  5. Zhu Y, Carvey PM, Ling Z: Altered glutathione homeostasis in animals prenatally exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Neurochem Int. 2007 Mar;50(4):671-80. Epub 2007 Jan 13. [PubMed:17291629 ]
General function:
Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Cleaves glutathione conjugates (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Glutathione + Water → Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
Glutathione + L-Amino acid → Cysteinylglycine + (5-L-Glutamyl)-L-amino aciddetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Adenosine triphosphate + gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Glycine → ADP + Phosphate + Glutathionedetails
  1. Herrera K, Cahoon RE, Kumaran S, Jez J: Reaction mechanism of glutathione synthetase from Arabidopsis thaliana: site-directed mutagenesis of active site residues. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 8;282(23):17157-65. Epub 2007 Apr 22. [PubMed:17452339 ]
  2. Mohanpuria P, Rana NK, Yadav SK: Cadmium induced oxidative stress influence on glutathione metabolic genes of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. Environ Toxicol. 2007 Aug;22(4):368-74. [PubMed:17607728 ]
  3. Forcella M, Berra E, Giacchini R, Parenti P: Antioxidant defenses preserve membrane transport activity in Chironomus riparius larvae exposed to anoxia. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2007 Aug;65(4):181-94. [PubMed:17630655 ]
  4. Janaky R, Dohovics R, Saransaari P, Oja SS: Modulation of [3H]dopamine release by glutathione in mouse striatal slices. Neurochem Res. 2007 Aug;32(8):1357-64. Epub 2007 Mar 31. [PubMed:17401648 ]
  5. Bridges CC, Battle JR, Zalups RK: Transport of thiol-conjugates of inorganic mercury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 1;221(2):251-60. Epub 2007 Mar 23. [PubMed:17467761 ]
General function:
Involved in enzyme activator activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conjugation of leukotriene A4 with reduced glutathione to form leukotriene C4.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Leukotriene C(4) → leukotriene A(4) + Glutathionedetails
Leukotriene A4 + Glutathione → Leukotriene C4details
  1. Martinez Molina D, Wetterholm A, Kohl A, McCarthy AA, Niegowski D, Ohlson E, Hammarberg T, Eshaghi S, Haeggstrom JZ, Nordlund P: Structural basis for synthesis of inflammatory mediators by human leukotriene C4 synthase. Nature. 2007 Aug 2;448(7153):613-6. Epub 2007 Jul 15. [PubMed:17632546 ]
  2. Ago H, Kanaoka Y, Irikura D, Lam BK, Shimamura T, Austen KF, Miyano M: Crystal structure of a human membrane protein involved in cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis. Nature. 2007 Aug 2;448(7153):609-12. Epub 2007 Jul 15. [PubMed:17632548 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
RX + Glutathione → HX + R-S-glutathionedetails
RX + Glutathione → Halide + R-S-Glutathionedetails
Naphthalene epoxide + Glutathione → (1R)-Hydroxy-(2R)-glutathionyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalenedetails
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide + Glutathione → (1R)-Glutathionyl-(2R)-hydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalenedetails
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide + Glutathione → (1S)-Hydroxy-(2S)-glutathionyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalenedetails
1-Nitronaphthalene-7,8-oxide + Glutathione → 1-Nitro-7-hydroxy-8-glutathionyl-7,8-dihydronaphthalenedetails
1-Nitronaphthalene-7,8-oxide + Glutathione → 1-Nitro-7-glutathionyl-8-hydroxy-7,8-dihydronaphthalenedetails
1-Nitronaphthalene-5,6-oxide + Glutathione → 1-Nitro-5-hydroxy-6-glutathionyl-5,6-dihydronaphthalenedetails
1-Nitronaphthalene-5,6-oxide + Glutathione → 1-Nitro-5-glutathionyl-6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydronaphthalenedetails
Bromobenzene-3,4-oxide + Glutathione → 3,4-Dihydro-3-hydroxy-4-S-glutathionyl bromobenzenedetails
Bromobenzene-2,3-oxide + Glutathione → 2,3-Dihydro-2-S-glutathionyl-3-hydroxy bromobenzenedetails
Benzo[a]pyrene-4,5-oxide + Glutathione → 4,5-Dihydro-4-hydroxy-5-S-glutathionyl-benzo[a]pyrenedetails
Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol + Glutathione → 7,8-Dihydro-7-hydroxy-8-S-glutathionyl-benzo[a]pyrene + Waterdetails
2,2-Dichloroacetaldehyde + Glutathione → S-(2,2-Dichloro-1-hydroxy)ethyl glutathionedetails
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
1,2-Dibromoethane + Glutathione + Hydrogen Ion → Glutathione episulfonium ion + Bromidedetails
2-Bromoacetaldehyde + Glutathione → S-(Formylmethyl)glutathione + Bromidedetails
Aldophosphamide + Glutathione → 4-Glutathionyl cyclophosphamide + Waterdetails
2,3-Epoxyaflatoxin B1 + Glutathione → Aflatoxin B1exo-8,9-epoxide-GSHdetails
  1. Kurtovic S, Jansson R, Mannervik B: Colorimetric endpoint assay for enzyme-catalyzed iodide ion release for high-throughput screening in microtiter plates. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Aug 15;464(2):284-7. Epub 2007 Apr 24. [PubMed:17490601 ]
  2. Vararattanavech A, Ketterman AJ: A functionally conserved basic residue in glutathione transferases interacts with the glycine moiety of glutathione and is pivotal for enzyme catalysis. Biochem J. 2007 Sep 1;406(2):247-56. [PubMed:17523921 ]
  3. Gallagher EP, Huisden CM, Gardner JL: Transfection of HepG2 cells with hGSTA4 provides protection against 4-hydroxynonenal-mediated oxidative injury. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007 Dec;21(8):1365-72. Epub 2007 Apr 27. [PubMed:17553661 ]
  4. Yalcinkaya S, Unlucerci Y, Uysal M: Methionine-supplemented diet augments hepatotoxicity and prooxidant status in chronically ethanol-treated rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2007 Aug;58(6):455-9. Epub 2007 May 11. [PubMed:17498936 ]
  5. Roh JY, Jung IH, Lee JY, Choi J: Toxic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on mortality, growth, reproduction and stress-related gene expression in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Toxicology. 2007 Jul 31;237(1-3):126-33. Epub 2007 May 18. [PubMed:17604895 ]


General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Paulusma CC, van Geer MA, Evers R, Heijn M, Ottenhoff R, Borst P, Oude Elferink RP: Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance protein 2 mediates low-affinity transport of reduced glutathione. Biochem J. 1999 Mar 1;338 ( Pt 2):393-401. [PubMed:10024515 ]
  2. Hagmann W, Nies AT, Konig J, Frey M, Zentgraf H, Keppler D: Purification of the human apical conjugate export pump MRP2 reconstitution and functional characterization as substrate-stimulated ATPase. Eur J Biochem. 1999 Oct 1;265(1):281-9. [PubMed:10491184 ]
  3. Nishida T, Gatmaitan Z, Roy-Chowdhry J, Arias IM: Two distinct mechanisms for bilirubin glucuronide transport by rat bile canalicular membrane vesicles. Demonstration of defective ATP-dependent transport in rats (TR-) with inherited conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. J Clin Invest. 1992 Nov;90(5):2130-5. [PubMed:1430236 ]
  4. Stieger B, Fattinger K, Madon J, Kullak-Ublick GA, Meier PJ: Drug- and estrogen-induced cholestasis through inhibition of the hepatocellular bile salt export pump (Bsep) of rat liver. Gastroenterology. 2000 Feb;118(2):422-30. [PubMed:10648470 ]
  5. Madon J, Hagenbuch B, Landmann L, Meier PJ, Stieger B: Transport function and hepatocellular localization of mrp6 in rat liver. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Mar;57(3):634-41. [PubMed:10692506 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o- glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Heijn M, Hooijberg JH, Scheffer GL, Szabo G, Westerhoff HV, Lankelma J: Anthracyclines modulate multidrug resistance protein (MRP) mediated organic anion transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 May 22;1326(1):12-22. [PubMed:9188796 ]
  2. Evers R, de Haas M, Sparidans R, Beijnen J, Wielinga PR, Lankelma J, Borst P: Vinblastine and sulfinpyrazone export by the multidrug resistance protein MRP2 is associated with glutathione export. Br J Cancer. 2000 Aug;83(3):375-83. [PubMed:10917554 ]
  3. Jedlitschky G, Leier I, Buchholz U, Barnouin K, Kurz G, Keppler D: Transport of glutathione, glucuronate, and sulfate conjugates by the MRP gene-encoded conjugate export pump. Cancer Res. 1996 Mar 1;56(5):988-94. [PubMed:8640791 ]
  4. Minich T, Riemer J, Schulz JB, Wielinga P, Wijnholds J, Dringen R: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1), but not Mrp5, mediates export of glutathione and glutathione disulfide from brain astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):373-84. Epub 2006 Mar 15. [PubMed:16539673 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Zelcer N, Saeki T, Reid G, Beijnen JH, Borst P: Characterization of drug transport by the human multidrug resistance protein 3 (ABCC3). J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 7;276(49):46400-7. [PubMed:11581266 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Lai L, Tan TM: Role of glutathione in the multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4)-mediated efflux of cAMP and resistance to purine analogues. Biochem J. 2002 Feb 1;361(Pt 3):497-503. [PubMed:11802779 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Acts as a multispecific organic anion pump which can transport nucleotide analogs
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Minich T, Riemer J, Schulz JB, Wielinga P, Wijnholds J, Dringen R: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1), but not Mrp5, mediates export of glutathione and glutathione disulfide from brain astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):373-84. Epub 2006 Mar 15. [PubMed:16539673 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 57 proteins in total.