Hmdb loader
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-11-15 21:04:27 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000158
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0000647
  • HMDB00158
  • HMDB00647
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Tyrosine
DescriptionTyrosine (Tyr) or L-tyrosine is an alpha-amino acid. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon). Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. L-tyrosine is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the amino acids used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Tyrosine is found in all organisms ranging from bacteria to plants to animals. It is classified as a non-polar, uncharged (at physiological pH) aromatic amino acid. Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid, meaning the body can synthesize it - usually from phenylalanine. The conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine is catalyzed by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, a monooxygenase. This enzyme catalyzes the reaction causing the addition of a hydroxyl group to the end of the 6-carbon aromatic ring of phenylalanine, such that it becomes tyrosine. Tyrosine is found in many high-protein food products such as chicken, turkey, fish, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, cheese, peanuts, almonds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, soy products, lima beans, avocados and bananas. Tyrosine is one of the few amino acids that readily passes the blood-brain barrier. Once in the brain, it is a precursor for the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, better known as adrenalin. These neurotransmitters are an important part of the body's sympathetic nervous system, and their concentrations in the body and brain are directly dependent upon dietary tyrosine. Tyrosine is not found in large concentrations throughout the body, probably because it is rapidly metabolized. Folic acid, copper and vitamin C are cofactor nutrients of these reactions. Tyrosine is also the precursor for hormones, including thyroid hormones (diiodotyrosine), catecholestrogens and the major human pigment, melanin. Tyrosine is an important amino acid in many proteins, peptides and even enkephalins, the body's natural pain reliever. Valine and other branched amino acids, and possibly tryptophan and phenylalanine may reduce tyrosine absorption. A number of genetic errors of tyrosine metabolism have been identified, such as hawkinsinuria and tyrosinemia I. The most common feature of these diseases is the increased amount of tyrosine in the blood, which is marked by decreased motor activity, lethargy and poor feeding. Infection and intellectual deficits may occur. Vitamin C supplements can help reverse these disease symptoms. Some adults also develop elevated tyrosine in their blood. This typically indicates a need for more vitamin C. More tyrosine is needed under stress, and tyrosine supplements prevent the stress-induced depletion of norepinephrine and can help aleviate biochemical depression. However, tyrosine may not be good for treating psychosis. Many antipsychotic medications apparently function by inhibiting tyrosine metabolism. L-Dopa, which is directly used in Parkinson's, is made from tyrosine. Tyrosine, the nutrient, can be used as an adjunct in the treatment of Parkinson's. Peripheral metabolism of tyrosine necessitates large doses of tyrosine, however, compared to L-Dopa (http://www.dcnutrition.com). In addition to its role as a precursor for neurotransmitters, tyrosine plays an important role for the function of many proteins. Within many proteins or enzymes, certain tyrosine residues can be tagged (at the hydroxyl group) with a phosphate group (phosphorylated) by specialized protein kinases. In its phosphorylated form, tyrosine is called phosphotyrosine. Tyrosine phosphorylation is considered to be one of the key steps in signal transduction and regulation of enzymatic activity. Tyrosine (or its precursor phenylalanine) is also needed to synthesize the benzoquinone structure which forms part of coenzyme Q10.
Structure
Data?1582752114
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-alpha-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acidChEBI
(2S)-2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acidChEBI
(S)-(-)-TyrosineChEBI
(S)-2-Amino-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acidChEBI
(S)-3-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)alanineChEBI
(S)-alpha-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acidChEBI
(S)-TyrosineChEBI
4-Hydroxy-L-phenylalanineChEBI
L-TyrosinChEBI
TyrChEBI
TYROSINEChEBI
YChEBI
(-)-a-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamateGenerator
(-)-a-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acidGenerator
(-)-alpha-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamateGenerator
(-)-Α-amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamateGenerator
(-)-Α-amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acidGenerator
(2S)-2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoateGenerator
(S)-2-Amino-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionateGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoateGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acidGenerator
(S)-alpha-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acidGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-4-hydroxy-benzenepropanoateHMDB
(S)-a-Amino-4-hydroxy-benzenepropanoic acidHMDB
(S)-alpha-Amino-4-hydroxy-benzenepropanoateHMDB
(S)-alpha-Amino-4-hydroxy-benzenepropanoic acidHMDB
2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphen yl)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoateHMDB
2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphen yl)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acidHMDB
3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-L-alanineHMDB
BenzenepropanoateHMDB
Benzenepropanoic acidHMDB
L-p-TyrosineHMDB
p-TyrosineHMDB
L TyrosineHMDB
Tyrosine, L-isomerHMDB
Tyrosine, L isomerHMDB
Para tyrosineHMDB
Para-tyrosineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO3
Average Molecular Weight181.1885
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight181.073893223
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
Traditional NameL-tyrosine
CAS Registry Number60-18-4
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H11NO3/c10-8(9(12)13)5-6-1-3-7(11)4-2-6/h1-4,8,11H,5,10H2,(H,12,13)/t8-/m0/s1
InChI KeyOUYCCCASQSFEME-QMMMGPOBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tyrosine and derivatives. Tyrosine and derivatives are compounds containing tyrosine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of tyrosine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentTyrosine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tyrosine or derivatives
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Process

Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point343 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.48 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.26HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental Chromatographic Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

Adduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
[M-H]-Baker145.7530932474
[M-H]-McLean145.99230932474
[M-H]-MetCCS_test_neg141.630932474
[M+H]+Astarita_pos139.730932474
[M+H]+Baker146.4230932474
[M+H]+McLean146.5530932474
[M+H]+MetCCS_test_pos145.73530932474
[M-H]-Not Available143.7http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000076
[M+H]+Not Available145.85http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000076
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.67 g/LALOGPS
logP10(-2.4) g/LALOGPS
logP10(-1.5) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-1.4) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.19ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area83.55 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity47.1 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability18.01 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+141.75231661259
DarkChem[M-H]-139.48931661259
AllCCS[M+H]+140.49732859911
AllCCS[M-H]-138.72732859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
L-TyrosineN[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O3194.4Standard polar33892256
L-TyrosineN[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O1897.1Standard non polar33892256
L-TyrosineN[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O2076.2Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
L-Tyrosine,1TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C(C[C@H](N)C(=O)O)C=C11902.3Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,1TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H](N)CC1=CC=C(O)C=C11913.3Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,1TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(=O)O1994.1Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,2TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H](N)CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C11880.7Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,2TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C1)C(=O)O1957.7Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,2TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C1961.5Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,2TMS,isomer #4C[Si](C)(C)N([C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(=O)O)[Si](C)(C)C2154.9Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C1)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C1931.2Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C1)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C1957.0Standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C1)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C2113.8Standard polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C(C[C@@H](C(=O)O)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C)C=C12120.2Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C(C[C@@H](C(=O)O)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C)C=C12016.5Standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C(C[C@@H](C(=O)O)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C)C=C12235.0Standard polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C2093.2Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C2107.1Standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C2231.2Standard polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,4TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C2149.4Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,4TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C2067.2Standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,4TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C2062.0Standard polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C(C[C@H](N)C(=O)O)C=C12161.7Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H](N)CC1=CC=C(O)C=C12152.1Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,1TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(=O)O2221.2Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H](N)CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C12398.0Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,2TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C1)C(=O)O2489.8Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,2TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2399.4Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,2TBDMS,isomer #4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)N([C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(=O)O)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2554.8Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C1)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2658.8Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C1)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2577.0Standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C1)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2488.8Standard polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C(C[C@@H](C(=O)O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C12858.8Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C(C[C@@H](C(=O)O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C12627.1Standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C(C[C@@H](C(=O)O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C12538.5Standard polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2747.5Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2706.4Standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,3TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2523.4Standard polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,4TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3059.3Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,4TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2824.6Standard non polar33892256
L-Tyrosine,4TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@H](CC1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2499.2Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-014i-0690000000-cbbf40bb26fc84f2aead2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-014i-0890000000-ca45f993f95c8b0cee442014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-014i-0890000000-5749069211ba15d713ef2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00xr-9240000000-2c87373c0d964e0edef52014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0890000000-848b2a4f247a0b3f14e82014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00xr-9450000000-6d4550940f4dde6f18ff2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-004i-1910000000-5cc19cad5dc24b3b9b112014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-014i-1790000000-de22041357aadf60a06b2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0690000000-cbbf40bb26fc84f2aead2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0890000000-ca45f993f95c8b0cee442017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0890000000-5749069211ba15d713ef2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xr-9240000000-2c87373c0d964e0edef52017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0890000000-848b2a4f247a0b3f14e82017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-3319000000-1d3d28a67f82366fff222017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xr-9450000000-6d4550940f4dde6f18ff2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-1910000000-5cc19cad5dc24b3b9b112017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-1790000000-de22041357aadf60a06b2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-052r-4900000000-9be1412408207db5df4e2016-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05fr-9750000000-937b6ee7a745865ee7ee2017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-MS (TMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-MS (TMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-MS (TMS_2_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine GC-MS (TMS_2_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-3900000000-7a26097fda66f2f445b52018-05-25Not AvailableView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-03e9-0839226000-5504e667281c746669ec2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-03di-0900000000-f65cb3ad2fa730c922f72012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-0900000000-a9276fe43ef61b4693e62012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a59-0039210000-21b4bd9870bf4965a6d12012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-0848491200-aae99eb0b66dd1c7036d2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-03di-0900000000-4104a2ca5d5ef5f22f6d2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-0900000000-f309996d57a95c719deb2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-03di-0013090000-112cd9c2eea42dbc079b2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-0900000000-c7f95918d936586f633d2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-03yi-1900000000-d1682546c1e0893c71e42012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014i-2900000000-a0cc78ed35e56dd812a52012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00kf-9500000000-d3f399f5dd10e338e25a2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9200000000-8acd8d370f194bfe28ed2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-1900000000-571c365754ff408549e42012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-0900000000-c7f95918d936586f633d2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-03yi-1900000000-644614c00b6e9f6aef942017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-014i-2900000000-a0cc78ed35e56dd812a52017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-00kf-9500000000-d3f399f5dd10e338e25a2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9200000000-8acd8d370f194bfe28ed2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT , negative-QTOFsplash10-03di-0900000000-f65cb3ad2fa730c922f72017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT , negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-0900000000-a9276fe43ef61b4693e62017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT , negative-QTOFsplash10-0a59-0039210000-21b4bd9870bf4965a6d12017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT , negative-QTOFsplash10-03di-0900000000-972f236da42e07f9af172017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT , negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-0900000000-f309996d57a95c719deb2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Tyrosine LC-ESI-ITFT , negative-QTOFsplash10-03di-0013090000-112cd9c2eea42dbc079b2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 400 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified54.5 +/- 9.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified143 +/- 35.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified32-124 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified29-135 uMInfant (1 - 3 months old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified24-105 uMChildren (3 months - 6 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified43-88 uMChildren (6 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified59.0 (47.0-71.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified34-94 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified81.9 (69.8-94) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not Available
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified120.0 +/- 100.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified68.0 +/- 10.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified72.0 +/- 15.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified61.0 +/- 13.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified55 - 147 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified55-147 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified46 +/- 8 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified65.1 +/- 2.55 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified84.2 (67.5-109) uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not Available
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified35.0-80.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified61 +/- 13 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified72 +/- 15 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified62.9 +/- 12.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified60.8(48.3-71.9) uMChildren (1-13 uears old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified142.0 +/- 4.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified15.0 +/- 6.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified10.1 (6.37-13.8) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified12.0 +/- 9.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified24.5 +/- 8.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified6.4 +/- 1.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified9.3 +/- 2.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified7.9 +/- 3.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified12.2 +/- 3.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified8.0 +/- 1.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3.9-18.5 uMChildren (0 - 10 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3.9-17 uMAdolescent (>11 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified478.323 (294.353-662.294) nmol/g wet fecesInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified1048.632 (588.706-1508.558) nmol/g wet fecesInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified1453.367 (607.103-2299.631) nmol/g wet fecesInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedBoth
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified700 +/- 420 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified110 +/- 100 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified114.246 +/- 94.322 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified36.17 +/- 15.02 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified5 (<1-78) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-77 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified30 (<1-91) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified12 (<1-49) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified11.1 +/- 7.65 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified15.1 +/- 10.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-127 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-68 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified13.7 +/- 3.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified12.0 +/- 5.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified11.8 +/- 6.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified39.85 +/- 24.71 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified12.2 +/- 3.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SweatDetected and Quantified70-270 uMAdult (60 years old)Male
Normal
details
SweatDetected and Quantified40 uMAdult (40 years old)Male
Normal
details
SweatDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.1 (6.1-23.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.49-27.71 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified21.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.36-23.53 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.52-38.66 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.70-13.0086 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.3-9.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.5 (4.1-23.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.0 +/- 0.5 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.9 +/- 0.7 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (1 - 6 months old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.7 +/- 0.8 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (6 months - <1 year old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.72 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.0370-168.459 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.42-77.47 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified14.588 +/- 10.744 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified27.35 +/- 13.98 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.41 +/- 2.30 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.7 (3.0-20.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.30-54.18 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6-57 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.72 (0.18-1.38) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.2 +/- 1.85 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.8 +/- 4.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.0 +/- 3.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified42.96 +/- 27.13 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified66.71 +/- 47.49 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified70.10 +/- 45.22 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.22 - 67.72 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.79 - 63.88 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (1 - 6 months old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.1-11.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.55 - 66.48 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (6 months - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.04 - 59.02 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 2 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.1-14.81 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.95 - 29.96 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (2 - 4 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.82 +/- 3.26 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.22 - 42.62 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (4 - 13 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.96 +/- 2.98 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.36 - 27.70 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13 - 21 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.36 - 27.70 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>21 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.9 (2.566-19.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
      Not Available
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.60-28.73 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified24.3893 +/- 10.0806 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified91.2 +/- 30.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected and Quantified73.0 +/- 20.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Oesophageal cancer
details
BloodDetected and Quantified82.5 +/- 21.1 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Obesity
    • Metabolomics reve...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified91.7 +/- 19.9 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Obesity
    • Metabolomics reve...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified57.2 +/- 24.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified56.9 +/- 15.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Pregnancy with fetuses with trisomy 18
details
BloodDetected and Quantified55.82 +/- 19.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified54.1 (15.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEarly preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified58.0 (22.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified50.7 (46.8-54.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Epilepsy
details
BloodDetected and Quantified74.0 (71.0-77.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMyocardial infarction details
BloodDetected and Quantified81.0 (75.9-86.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Epilepsy
details
BloodDetected and Quantified90.0 (81.0-99.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothViral Infection details
BloodDetected and Quantified143-246 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothCitrullinemia type II, neonatal-onset details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
BloodDetected and Quantified257 uMInfant (0-1 year old)MaleFumaric aciduria details
BloodDetected and Quantified1471.948 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleHereditary tyrosinemia details
BloodDetected and Quantified>220 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothTyrosinemia I details
BloodDetected and Quantified108-146 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleS-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified310-1410 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Tyrosinemia I
details
BloodDetected and Quantified395.1 - 586.7 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not AvailableHawkinsinuria details
BloodDetected and Quantified48-95 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleS-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified42.94 (11.38) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy with fetus having congenital heart defect details
BloodDetected and Quantified45.63 (19.15) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified65.1 (23.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleLate-onset preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified62.3 (21.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
BloodDetected and Quantified57.2 +/- 3.33 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified143.77 +/- 15.49 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified61.1(52.0-72.9) uMChildren (1-13 uears old)Both
Environmental enteric dysfunction
details
BloodDetected and Quantified50.5 (15.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleDown syndrome pregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified54.1 (20.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified15.3 (10.4-20.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypothyroidism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified14.2 +/-12.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified13.0 +/- 10.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified12.3 +/- 9.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified9.4 +/- 4.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified8.05 +/- 3.03 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified27.18 +/- 4.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified13.0 +/- 4.1 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothLeukemia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified12.6 +/- 3.3 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Leukemia
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified15.3 +/- 4.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedhypothyroidism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified15.3 +/- 4.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypothyroidism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified7.8 +/- 1.38 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothCCD details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothIleal Crohn's disease details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUnclassified IBD details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleMyalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothIrritable Bowel Syndrome details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleAttachment loss  details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleMissing teeth details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MalePeriodontal Probing Depth details
SalivaDetected and Quantified21.64 +/- 9.24 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothOral cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPancreatic cancer details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeriodontal diseases details
SalivaDetected and Quantified25.82 +/- 9.25 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified25.05 +/- 8.02 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Bladder cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified35.150-369 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedFumaric aciduria details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.005 +/- 10.562 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.5 +/- 1.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.72 +/- 4.63 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedCachexia details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.2606 +/- 11.9167 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.2462 +/- 14.3236 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Epilepsy
  1. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [PubMed:14992292 ]
  2. Botez MI, Young SN: Effects of anticonvulsant treatment and low levels of folate and thiamine on amine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid. Brain. 1991 Feb;114 ( Pt 1A):333-48. [PubMed:1705463 ]
Myocardial infarction
  1. Wannemacher RW Jr, Klainer AS, Dinterman RE, Beisel WR: The significance and mechanism of an increased serum phenylalanine-tyrosine ratio during infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Sep;29(9):997-1006. [PubMed:822705 ]
Viral infection
  1. Wannemacher RW Jr, Klainer AS, Dinterman RE, Beisel WR: The significance and mechanism of an increased serum phenylalanine-tyrosine ratio during infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Sep;29(9):997-1006. [PubMed:822705 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Alfredsson G, Wiesel FA: Monoamine metabolites and amino acids in serum from schizophrenic patients before and during sulpiride treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989;99(3):322-7. [PubMed:2480613 ]
  2. Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. [PubMed:7595563 ]
  3. Fukushima T, Iizuka H, Yokota A, Suzuki T, Ohno C, Kono Y, Nishikiori M, Seki A, Ichiba H, Watanabe Y, Hongo S, Utsunomiya M, Nakatani M, Sadamoto K, Yoshio T: Quantitative analyses of schizophrenia-associated metabolites in serum: serum D-lactate levels are negatively correlated with gamma-glutamylcysteine in medicated schizophrenia patients. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 8;9(7):e101652. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101652. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25004141 ]
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17031479 ]
  2. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Qiu Y, Cai G, Su M, Chen T, Zheng X, Xu Y, Ni Y, Zhao A, Xu LX, Cai S, Jia W: Serum metabolite profiling of human colorectal cancer using GC-TOFMS and UPLC-QTOFMS. J Proteome Res. 2009 Oct;8(10):4844-50. doi: 10.1021/pr9004162. [PubMed:19678709 ]
  2. Ni Y, Xie G, Jia W: Metabonomics of human colorectal cancer: new approaches for early diagnosis and biomarker discovery. J Proteome Res. 2014 Sep 5;13(9):3857-70. doi: 10.1021/pr500443c. Epub 2014 Aug 14. [PubMed:25105552 ]
  3. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  4. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  5. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Early preeclampsia
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomics and first-trimester prediction of early-onset preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Oct;25(10):1840-7. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.680254. Epub 2012 Apr 28. [PubMed:22494326 ]
Pregnancy
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomics and first-trimester prediction of early-onset preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Oct;25(10):1840-7. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.680254. Epub 2012 Apr 28. [PubMed:22494326 ]
  2. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: First-trimester metabolomic detection of late-onset preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;208(1):58.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Nov 13. [PubMed:23159745 ]
  3. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomic analysis for first-trimester Down syndrome prediction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 May;208(5):371.e1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.12.035. Epub 2013 Jan 8. [PubMed:23313728 ]
  4. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Chelliah A, Mandal R, Dong E, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomic analysis for first-trimester trisomy 18 detection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jul;209(1):65.e1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2013.03.028. Epub 2013 Mar 25. [PubMed:23535240 ]
  5. Bahado-Singh RO, Ertl R, Mandal R, Bjorndahl TC, Syngelaki A, Han B, Dong E, Liu PB, Alpay-Savasan Z, Wishart DS, Nicolaides KH: Metabolomic prediction of fetal congenital heart defect in the first trimester. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Sep;211(3):240.e1-240.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.03.056. Epub 2014 Apr 1. [PubMed:24704061 ]
Late-onset preeclampsia
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: First-trimester metabolomic detection of late-onset preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;208(1):58.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Nov 13. [PubMed:23159745 ]
Fumarase deficiency
  1. Allegri G, Fernandes MJ, Scalco FB, Correia P, Simoni RE, Llerena JC Jr, de Oliveira ML: Fumaric aciduria: an overview and the first Brazilian case report. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2010 Aug;33(4):411-9. doi: 10.1007/s10545-010-9134-2. Epub 2010 Jun 15. [PubMed:20549362 ]
Tyrosinemia
  1. Swarna M, Jyothy A, Usha Rani P, Reddy PP: Amino acid disorders in mental retardation: a two-decade study from Andhra Pradesh. Biochem Genet. 2004 Apr;42(3-4):85-98. [PubMed:15168722 ]
Tyrosinemia I
  1. Nakamura K, Matsumoto S, Mitsubuchi H, Endo F: Diagnosis and treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia in Japan. Pediatr Int. 2015;57(1):37-40. doi: 10.1111/ped.12550. [PubMed:25443793 ]
  2. Gissen P, Preece MA, Willshaw HA, McKiernan PJ: Ophthalmic follow-up of patients with tyrosinaemia type I on NTBC. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003;26(1):13-6. [PubMed:12872835 ]
Hypermethioninemia
  1. Labrune P, Perignon JL, Rault M, Brunet C, Lutun H, Charpentier C, Saudubray JM, Odievre M: Familial hypermethioninemia partially responsive to dietary restriction. J Pediatr. 1990 Aug;117(2 Pt 1):220-6. [PubMed:2380820 ]
Hawkinsinuria
  1. Thodi G, Schulpis KH, Dotsikas Y, Pavlides C, Molou E, Chatzidaki M, Triantafylli O, Loukas YL: Hawkinsinuria in two unrelated Greek newborns: identification of a novel variant, biochemical findings and treatment. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jan;29(1):15-20. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2015-0132. [PubMed:26226126 ]
Obesity
  1. Simone Wahl, Christina Holzapfel, Zhonghao Yu, Michaela Breier, Ivan Kondofersky, Christiane Fuchs, Paula Singmann, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Harald Grallert, Thomas Illig, Rui Wang-Sattler, Thomas Reinehr (2013). Metabolomics reveals determinants of weight loss during lifestyle intervention in obese children. Metabolomics.
Citrullinemia type II, neonatal-onset
  1. Ohura T, Kobayashi K, Tazawa Y, Nishi I, Abukawa D, Sakamoto O, Iinuma K, Saheki T: Neonatal presentation of adult-onset type II citrullinemia. Hum Genet. 2001 Feb;108(2):87-90. [PubMed:11281457 ]
Hypothyroidism
  1. Sjoberg S, Eriksson M, Nordin C: L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):493-7. [PubMed:9849813 ]
Leukemia
  1. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [PubMed:15911239 ]
Irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
  2. Hong YS, Hong KS, Park MH, Ahn YT, Lee JH, Huh CS, Lee J, Kim IK, Hwang GS, Kim JS: Metabonomic understanding of probiotic effects in humans with irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 May-Jun;45(5):415-25. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e318207f76c. [PubMed:21494186 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
  2. Bjerrum JT, Wang Y, Hao F, Coskun M, Ludwig C, Gunther U, Nielsen OH: Metabonomics of human fecal extracts characterize ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and healthy individuals. Metabolomics. 2015;11:122-133. Epub 2014 Jun 1. [PubMed:25598765 ]
  3. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Autism
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Bjerrum JT, Wang Y, Hao F, Coskun M, Ludwig C, Gunther U, Nielsen OH: Metabonomics of human fecal extracts characterize ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and healthy individuals. Metabolomics. 2015;11:122-133. Epub 2014 Jun 1. [PubMed:25598765 ]
  2. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Perillyl alcohol administration for cancer treatment
  1. Sugimoto M, Wong DT, Hirayama A, Soga T, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry-based saliva metabolomics identified oral, breast and pancreatic cancer-specific profiles. Metabolomics. 2010 Mar;6(1):78-95. Epub 2009 Sep 10. [PubMed:20300169 ]
Pancreatic cancer
  1. Sugimoto M, Wong DT, Hirayama A, Soga T, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry-based saliva metabolomics identified oral, breast and pancreatic cancer-specific profiles. Metabolomics. 2010 Mar;6(1):78-95. Epub 2009 Sep 10. [PubMed:20300169 ]
Periodontal disease
  1. Sugimoto M, Wong DT, Hirayama A, Soga T, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry-based saliva metabolomics identified oral, breast and pancreatic cancer-specific profiles. Metabolomics. 2010 Mar;6(1):78-95. Epub 2009 Sep 10. [PubMed:20300169 ]
Frontotemporal dementia
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Lewy body disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Attachment loss
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Missing teeth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Periodontal Probing Depth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Cachexia
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Eisner R, Young N, Gautam B, Hau DD, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bouatra S, Mandal R, Sinelnikov I, Xia J, Jia L, Cruz JA, Lim E, Sobsey CA, Shrivastava S, Huang P, Liu P, Fang L, Peng J, Fradette R, Cheng D, Tzur D, Clements M, Lewis A, De Souza A, Zuniga A, Dawe M, Xiong Y, Clive D, Greiner R, Nazyrova A, Shaykhutdinov R, Li L, Vogel HJ, Forsythe I: HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jan;37(Database issue):D603-10. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn810. Epub 2008 Oct 25. [PubMed:18953024 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. Slae, M., Huynh, H., Wishart, D.S. (2014). Analysis of 30 normal pediatric urine samples via NMR spectroscopy (unpublished work). NA.
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00135
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB000446
KNApSAcK IDC00001397
Chemspider ID5833
KEGG Compound IDC00082
BioCyc IDTYR
BiGG ID33785
Wikipedia LinkTyrosine
METLIN ID34
PubChem Compound6057
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17895
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDTYR_L
MarkerDB IDMDB00000076
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceEnei, Hitoshi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi; Okumura, Shinji; Yamada, Hideaki. Microbiological synthesis of L-tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine. I. Distribution of tyrosine phenol lyase in microorganisms. Agricultural and Biological Chemist 1972, 36:11, 1861-1868, DOI: 10.1080/00021369.1972.10860505
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [PubMed:12097436 ]
  3. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [PubMed:6696735 ]
  4. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. [PubMed:12834252 ]
  5. Sjoberg S, Eriksson M, Nordin C: L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):493-7. [PubMed:9849813 ]
  6. Eklundh T, Eriksson M, Sjoberg S, Nordin C: Monoamine precursors, transmitters and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid: a prospective study in healthy male subjects. J Psychiatr Res. 1996 May-Jun;30(3):201-8. [PubMed:8884658 ]
  7. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [PubMed:6198473 ]
  8. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [PubMed:15911239 ]
  9. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [PubMed:12297216 ]
  10. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [PubMed:14992292 ]
  11. Deng C, Shang C, Hu Y, Zhang X: Rapid diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other aminoacidemias by quantitative analysis of amino acids in neonatal blood spots by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Jul 25;775(1):115-20. [PubMed:12101068 ]
  12. Flamen P, Bernheim N, Deron P, Caveliers V, Chavatte K, Franken PR, Bossuyt A: Iodine-123 alpha-methyl-l-tyrosine single-photon emission tomography for the visualization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Eur J Nucl Med. 1998 Feb;25(2):177-81. [PubMed:9473267 ]
  13. Ishiwata K, Tsukada H, Kubota K, Nariai T, Harada N, Kawamura K, Kimura Y, Oda K, Iwata R, Ishii K: Preclinical and clinical evaluation of O-[11C]methyl-L-tyrosine for tumor imaging by positron emission tomography. Nucl Med Biol. 2005 Apr;32(3):253-62. [PubMed:15820760 ]
  14. Wannemacher RW Jr, Klainer AS, Dinterman RE, Beisel WR: The significance and mechanism of an increased serum phenylalanine-tyrosine ratio during infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Sep;29(9):997-1006. [PubMed:822705 ]
  15. Molnar GA, Wagner Z, Marko L, Ko Szegi T, Mohas M, Kocsis B, Matus Z, Wagner L, Tamasko M, Mazak I, Laczy B, Nagy J, Wittmann I: Urinary ortho-tyrosine excretion in diabetes mellitus and renal failure: evidence for hydroxyl radical production. Kidney Int. 2005 Nov;68(5):2281-7. [PubMed:16221230 ]
  16. Molnar GA, Nemes V, Biro Z, Ludany A, Wagner Z, Wittmann I: Accumulation of the hydroxyl free radical markers meta-, ortho-tyrosine and DOPA in cataractous lenses is accompanied by a lower protein and phenylalanine content of the water-soluble phase. Free Radic Res. 2005 Dec;39(12):1359-66. [PubMed:16298866 ]
  17. Hoffhines AJ, Damoc E, Bridges KG, Leary JA, Moore KL: Detection and purification of tyrosine-sulfated proteins using a novel anti-sulfotyrosine monoclonal antibody. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 8;281(49):37877-87. Epub 2006 Oct 17. [PubMed:17046811 ]
  18. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 17 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular weight:
60392.69
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + Waterdetails
L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → L-Dopa + Waterdetails
L-Dopa + L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + L-Dopa + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Plays an important role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons.
Gene Name:
TH
Uniprot ID:
P07101
Molecular weight:
55611.26
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + Tetrahydrobiopterin + Oxygen → L-Dopa + 4a-Hydroxytetrahydrobiopterindetails
Tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → L-Dopa + 4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin + Waterdetails
References
  1. Olsovska J, Novotna J, Flieger M, Spizek J: Assay of tyrosine hydroxylase based on high-performance liquid chromatography separation and quantification of L-dopa and L-tyrosine. Biomed Chromatogr. 2007 Dec;21(12):1252-8. [PubMed:17604359 ]
  2. Bodnar I, Hechtl D, Szekacs D, Olah M, Nagy GM: Effect of local (intracerebral and intracerebroventricular) administration of tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor on the neuroendocrine dopaminergic neurons and prolactin release. Ideggyogy Sz. 2007 Mar 30;60(3-4):177-81. [PubMed:17451064 ]
  3. Rostrup M, Fossbakk A, Hauge A, Kleppe R, Gnaiger E, Haavik J: Oxygen dependence of tyrosine hydroxylase. Amino Acids. 2008 Apr;34(3):455-64. Epub 2007 May 23. [PubMed:17520326 ]
  4. Richards AB, Scheel TA, Wang K, Henkemeyer M, Kromer LF: EphB1 null mice exhibit neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars reticulata and spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May;25(9):2619-28. [PubMed:17561836 ]
  5. Ugriumov MV: [Brain neurons partly expressing monoaminergic phenotype: distribution, development, and functional significance]. Usp Fiziol Nauk. 2007 Apr-Jun;38(2):3-25. [PubMed:17578016 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Iodination and coupling of the hormonogenic tyrosines in thyroglobulin to yield the thyroid hormones T(3) and T(4).
Gene Name:
TPO
Uniprot ID:
P07202
Molecular weight:
102961.63
Reactions
I(-) + Iodotyrosine → Iodine + L-Tyrosinedetails
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has much lower affinity and transaminase activity towards phenylalanine.
Gene Name:
TAT
Uniprot ID:
P17735
Molecular weight:
50398.895
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
References
  1. Dong S, Kang S, Gu TL, Kardar S, Fu H, Lonial S, Khoury HJ, Khuri F, Chen J: 14-3-3 Integrates prosurvival signals mediated by the AKT and MAPK pathways in ZNF198-FGFR1-transformed hematopoietic cells. Blood. 2007 Jul 1;110(1):360-9. Epub 2007 Mar 27. [PubMed:17389761 ]
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Molecular weight:
53893.755
Reactions
L-Tyrosine → Tyramine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in amino acid binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PAH
Uniprot ID:
P00439
Molecular weight:
51861.565
Reactions
L-Phenylalanine + Tetrahydrobiopterin + Oxygen → L-Tyrosine + 4a-Hydroxytetrahydrobiopterindetails
Tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Phenylalanine + Oxygen → 4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Tyrosine + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GOT1
Uniprot ID:
P17174
Molecular weight:
46247.14
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. Important for metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Facilitates cellular uptake of long-chain free fatty acids.
Gene Name:
GOT2
Uniprot ID:
P00505
Molecular weight:
47517.285
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
YARS
Uniprot ID:
P54577
Molecular weight:
59143.025
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Tyrosine + tRNA(Tyr) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr)details
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Tyrosine + tRNA(Tyr) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr)details
References
  1. Bonnefond L, Frugier M, Touze E, Lorber B, Florentz C, Giege R, Rudinger-Thirion J, Sauter C: Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase: the first crystallization of a human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007 Apr 1;63(Pt 4):338-41. Epub 2007 Mar 30. [PubMed:17401211 ]
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
YARS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2Z4
Molecular weight:
53198.56
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Tyrosine + tRNA(Tyr) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr)details
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Tyrosine + tRNA(Tyr) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr)details
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Zhang Y, Wang L, Schultz PG, Wilson IA: Crystal structures of apo wild-type M. jannaschii tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and an engineered TyrRS specific for O-methyl-L-tyrosine. Protein Sci. 2005 May;14(5):1340-9. [PubMed:15840835 ]
  4. Kiga D, Sakamoto K, Kodama K, Kigawa T, Matsuda T, Yabuki T, Shirouzu M, Harada Y, Nakayama H, Takio K, Hasegawa Y, Endo Y, Hirao I, Yokoyama S: An engineered Escherichia coli tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase for site-specific incorporation of an unnatural amino acid into proteins in eukaryotic translation and its application in a wheat germ cell-free system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23;99(15):9715-20. Epub 2002 Jul 3. [PubMed:12097643 ]
  5. Kobayashi T, Nureki O, Ishitani R, Yaremchuk A, Tukalo M, Cusack S, Sakamoto K, Yokoyama S: Structural basis for orthogonal tRNA specificities of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases for genetic code expansion. Nat Struct Biol. 2003 Jun;10(6):425-32. [PubMed:12754495 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Stimulates cellular uptake of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) and diidothyronine. Does not transport Leu, Phe, Trp or Tyr
Gene Name:
SLC16A2
Uniprot ID:
P36021
Molecular weight:
59510.9
References
  1. Friesema EC, Ganguly S, Abdalla A, Manning Fox JE, Halestrap AP, Visser TJ: Identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):40128-35. Epub 2003 Jul 18. [PubMed:12871948 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular weight:
55492.1
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462 ]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 17 proteins in total.