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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:44:40 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000195
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00195
Metabolite Identification
Common NameInosine
DescriptionInosine, also known as hypoxanthosine or inotin, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine nucleosides. Purine nucleosides are compounds comprising a purine base attached to a ribosyl or deoxyribosyl moiety. Inosine is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring a beta-N9-glycosidic bond. Inosine is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid. Inosine is also an intermediate in the purine salvage pathway. Inosine occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules and is essential for proper translation of the genetic code in wobble base pairs. Inosine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to plants to humans. Inosine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, inosine can be biosynthesized from inosinic acid through its interaction with the enzyme known as cytosolic purine 5'-nucleotidase. In addition, inosine can be converted into hypoxanthine and ribose 1-phosphate through its interaction with the enzyme known as purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Altered levels of inosine have also been associated with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency and xanthinuria type I, both of which are inborn errors of metabolism. Animal studies have suggested that inosine has neuroprotective properties. It has been proposed as a potential treatment for spinal cord injury (PMID: 16317421 ) and for administration after stroke, as inosine appears to induce axonal rewiring (PMID: 12084941 ). After ingestion, inosine is metabolized into uric acid, which has been found to be a natural antioxidant and peroxynitrite scavenger. As such, inosine may have potential benefits to patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease (PMID: 19425822 ). Inosine can also be produced by gut bacteria and appears to have a number of beneficial effects. Inosine, has been shown to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma signaling in human colon epithelial cells. Furthermore, exogenous treatment of inosine has been found to protect against DSS-induced colitis in rodents by improving adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR)/PPAR-gamma-dependent mucosal barrier functions (PMID: 33820558 ). Microbiome-derived inosine has also been shown to modulate the response to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy in cancer models. In particular, decreased gut barrier function induced by immunotherapy increases systemic translocation of bacterially derived inosine and activates antitumor T cells. The effect of inosine is dependent on T cell expression of the adenosine A2A receptor and requires co-stimulation. Inosine appears to have other roles in non-mammalian system. For instance, it has been found to be an important feed stimulant by itself or in combination with certain amino acids in some species of farmed fish. For example, inosine and inosine-5-monophosphate have been reported as specific feeding stimulants for turbot fry, (Scophthalmus maximus) and Japanese amberjack.
Structure
Data?1584035683
Synonyms
ValueSource
9-beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-9H-purin-6-olChEBI
9-beta-D-RibofuranosylhypoxanthineChEBI
Hypoxanthine D-ribosideChEBI
HypoxanthosineChEBI
iChEBI
InosinChEBI
InosinaChEBI
InosinumChEBI
InotinKegg
9-b-D-Ribofuranosyl-9H-purin-6-olGenerator
9-Β-D-ribofuranosyl-9H-purin-6-olGenerator
9-b-D-RibofuranosylhypoxanthineGenerator
9-Β-D-ribofuranosylhypoxanthineGenerator
(-)-InosineHMDB
1,9-Dihydro-9-b-D-ribofuranosyl-6H-purin-6-oneHMDB
1,9-Dihydro-9-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-6H-purin-6-oneHMDB
1,9-Dihydro-9-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-6H-purin-6-oneHMDB
9-b-D-Ribofuranosyl-hypoxanthineHMDB
9-beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-hypoxanthineHMDB
9-beta-delta-Ribofuranosyl-hypoxanthineHMDB
9-beta-delta-RibofuranosylhypoxanthineHMDB
9beta-D-RibofuranosylhypoxanthineHMDB
9beta-delta-RibofuranosylhypoxanthineHMDB
AtorelHMDB
beta-D-Ribofuranoside hypoxanthine-9HMDB
beta-delta-Ribofuranoside hypoxanthine-9HMDB
beta-InosineHMDB
HXRHMDB
Hypoxanthine 9-beta-D-ribofuranosideHMDB
Hypoxanthine 9-beta-delta-ribofuranosideHMDB
Hypoxanthine nucleosideHMDB
Hypoxanthine ribonucleosideHMDB
Hypoxanthine ribosideHMDB
Hypoxanthine-9 beta-D-ribofuranosideHMDB
Hypoxanthine-9 beta-delta-ribofuranosideHMDB
Hypoxanthine-9-beta-D-ribofuranosideHMDB
Hypoxanthine-9-beta-delta-ribofuranosideHMDB
Hypoxanthine-9-D-ribofuranosideHMDB
Hypoxanthine-9-delta-ribofuranosideHMDB
Hypoxanthine-riboseHMDB
Indole-3-carboxaldehydeHMDB
InoHMDB
InosieHMDB
Iso-prinosineHMDB
OxiaminHMDB
Panholic-LHMDB
Pantholic-LHMDB
RibonosineHMDB
SelferHMDB
TrophicardylHMDB
Chemical FormulaC10H12N4O5
Average Molecular Weight268.2261
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight268.080769514
IUPAC Name9-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-6,9-dihydro-3H-purin-6-one
Traditional Nameinosine
CAS Registry Number58-63-9
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1O)N1C=NC2=C(O)N=CN=C12
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H12N4O5/c15-1-4-6(16)7(17)10(19-4)14-3-13-5-8(14)11-2-12-9(5)18/h2-4,6-7,10,15-17H,1H2,(H,11,12,18)/t4-,6-,7-,10-/m1/s1
InChI KeyUGQMRVRMYYASKQ-KQYNXXCUSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine nucleosides. Purine nucleosides are compounds comprising a purine base attached to a ribosyl or deoxyribosyl moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPurine nucleosides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPurine nucleosides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Purine nucleoside
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Hypoxanthine
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Purinone
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Monosaccharide
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Process

Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point218 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility15.8 mg/mLYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
LogP-2.10HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental Spectral Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DeepCCS[M-H]-Astarita_neg152.730932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-Baker161.69830932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-MetCCS_test_neg155.730932474
DeepCCS[M+H]+Astarita_pos153.330932474
DeepCCS[M+H]+Baker159.25130932474
AllCCS[M-H]-Not Available158.8http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000151
AllCCS[M+H]+Not Available159.251http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000151
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility13.8 g/LALOGPS
logP10(-2) g/LChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.74ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area129.2 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity60.9 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability24.6 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+159.82831661259
DarkChem[M-H]-155.66931661259
AllCCS[M+H]+160.05732859911
AllCCS[M-H]-158.36832859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Inosine,1TMS,#1C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O2645.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,1TMS,#2C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H]1[C@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@H]1N1C=NC2=C(O)N=CN=C212627.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,1TMS,#3C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H]1[C@@H](CO)O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O)N=CN=C32)[C@@H]1O2629.8Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,1TMS,#4C[Si](C)(C)OC1=NC=NC2=C1N=CN2[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O2559.3Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,2TMS,#1C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O2550.3Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,2TMS,#2C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O2623.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,2TMS,#3C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C2616.5Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,2TMS,#4C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H]1[C@@H](CO)O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O)N=CN=C32)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C2607.7Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,2TMS,#5C[Si](C)(C)OC1=NC=NC2=C1N=CN2[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C2539.4Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,2TMS,#6C[Si](C)(C)OC1=NC=NC2=C1N=CN2[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H]1O2544.7Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,3TMS,#1C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O2548.7Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,3TMS,#2C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C2549.6Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,3TMS,#3C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C2569.5Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,3TMS,#4C[Si](C)(C)OC1=NC=NC2=C1N=CN2[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C2540.6Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,4TMS,#1C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C2558.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,1TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O2897.2Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,1TBDMS,#2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H]1[C@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@H]1N1C=NC2=C(O)N=CN=C212880.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,1TBDMS,#3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H]1[C@@H](CO)O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O)N=CN=C32)[C@@H]1O2876.3Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,1TBDMS,#4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=NC=NC2=C1N=CN2[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O2806.5Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,2TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O3015.8Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,2TBDMS,#2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O3091.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,2TBDMS,#3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3091.2Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,2TBDMS,#4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H]1[C@@H](CO)O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O)N=CN=C32)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3080.0Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,2TBDMS,#5CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=NC=NC2=C1N=CN2[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2992.7Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,2TBDMS,#6CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=NC=NC2=C1N=CN2[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H]1O3000.8Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,3TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O3189.5Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,3TBDMS,#2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3195.5Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,3TBDMS,#3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3214.4Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,3TBDMS,#4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=NC=NC2=C1N=CN2[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3175.2Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Inosine,4TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](N2C=NC3=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)N=CN=C32)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3361.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Inosine GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0frt-0890000000-c0c5ebc2bbf12c1a7edf2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Inosine GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-00di-9440000000-566aadb777ee03fb22fb2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Inosine GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0fsi-1690000000-364bf8794afeeff6ba512014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Inosine GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0frt-0890000000-c0c5ebc2bbf12c1a7edf2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Inosine GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9440000000-566aadb777ee03fb22fb2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Inosine GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fsi-1690000000-364bf8794afeeff6ba512017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Inosine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0adl-9250000000-d6ee10ae0804bda3e4ce2017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Inosine GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0lmr-8659500000-9f567e118aa09e8805412017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Inosine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-000i-0900000000-012b2024bf3b3837c54c2012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-000i-0900000000-08a2204bd9dd4d300b732012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-000i-2900000000-8da9aa27b202f672fb832012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-0930000000-ee37a7516ef378cd665d2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-0900000000-e0575da4ae91163a2a902012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0900000000-379f5383e1bd290db9b62012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-cd539725f09d01a39e252012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-0uxr-0930000000-b69310182305cd88dbc52012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-00l2-9300000000-65a24aadb3a2b262cacf2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-0900000000-9c77149cd916c03405732012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0900000000-e8f9aac2c9bfc820dc7d2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-014r-0490020000-6eeacbf0ca8726ed85422012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9100000000-cdcc2e477ba37ca8f07a2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-0900000000-f96733a8f63a90d3644d2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0900000000-b9b05cbee9a42ce87c0f2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-015i-0696011000-c836d8cd13395c898ae12012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9100000000-d8c6fdb9231ac2c6e9392012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-0900000000-632ba91cd477e5aaf9e52012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-0910000000-fc11279b73334e4ea0a82012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014i-0090000000-00981efb4a95714738662012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014i-0390000000-989ff580a7b60b1519962012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0920000000-b78cba83cbf8f1ae48f32012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0910000000-505a6507fcb525fe9a142012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-052r-2900000000-33d1372d34f6b06e3a2f2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Inosine LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0900000000-a0601a44cbbc12888cc22012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 1H]-TOCSY 2D NMR Spectrum (experimental)2012-12-04Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Pericardial Effusion
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Spleen
  • Testis
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.20 +/- 0.07 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.05 +/- 0.01 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.0 +/- 0.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.3 +/- 0.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.9 +/- 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.64 +/- 0.35 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.6 (0.0-1.2) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Pericardial EffusionDetected and Quantified0.347 (0.159 - 1.037) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.37 +/- 0.80 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.68 +/- 0.20 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.96 +/- 0.23 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.73 +/- 0.16 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.653 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.28 +/- 0.15 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.31 +/- 0.17 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.30 +/- 0.16 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-21 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.71 +/- 0.89 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.28 +/- 0.33 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.04 +/- 0.56 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.4 (0.4-6.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-25 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.68 +/- 0.47 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.19 +/- 0.17 uM uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Septic shock
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.19 +/- 0.17 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Cardiogenic shock
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.19 +/- 0.17 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Major trauma
details
BloodDetected and Quantified30.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothPurine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.0 +/- 0.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSolid tumors details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.5 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Male
Xanthinuria type 1
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Xanthinuria type 1
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.6 +/- 0.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Kidney disease
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.70 (0.60-0.80) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDegenerative disc disease details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleGout details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUnclassified IBD details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
Pericardial EffusionDetected and Quantified0.658 (0.321 - 1.331) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCoronary artery disease details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleAttachment loss  details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MalePeriodontal Probing Depth details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleTooth Decay details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.388 +/- 2.543 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Bladder cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.00 +/- 1.61 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified14000.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPurine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Critical illnesses
  1. Jabs CM, Sigurdsson GH, Neglen P: Plasma levels of high-energy compounds compared with severity of illness in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. Surgery. 1998 Jul;124(1):65-72. [PubMed:9663253 ]
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [PubMed:16139832 ]
Kidney disease
  1. Niwa T, Takeda N, Yoshizumi H: RNA metabolism in uremic patients: accumulation of modified ribonucleosides in uremic serum. Technical note. Kidney Int. 1998 Jun;53(6):1801-6. [PubMed:9607216 ]
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
  1. Chantin C, Bonin B, Boulieu R, Bory C: Liquid-chromatographic study of purine metabolism abnormalities in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Clin Chem. 1996 Feb;42(2):326-8. [PubMed:8595732 ]
Thymidine treatment
  1. Leyva A, Schornagel JH, Kraal I, Wadman SK, Pinedo HM: Clinical and biochemical studies of high-dose thymidine treatment in patients with solid tumors. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1984;107(3):211-6. [PubMed:6736109 ]
Septic shock
  1. Jabs CM, Sigurdsson GH, Neglen P: Plasma levels of high-energy compounds compared with severity of illness in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. Surgery. 1998 Jul;124(1):65-72. [PubMed:9663253 ]
Xanthinuria type 1
  1. Mateos FA, Puig JG, Jimenez ML, Fox IH: Hereditary xanthinuria. Evidence for enhanced hypoxanthine salvage. J Clin Invest. 1987 Mar;79(3):847-52. [PubMed:3818951 ]
Degenerative disc disease
  1. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
Irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Ponnusamy K, Choi JN, Kim J, Lee SY, Lee CH: Microbial community and metabolomic comparison of irritable bowel syndrome faeces. J Med Microbiol. 2011 Jun;60(Pt 6):817-27. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.028126-0. Epub 2011 Feb 17. [PubMed:21330412 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Gout
  1. Shao T, Shao L, Li H, Xie Z, He Z, Wen C: Combined Signature of the Fecal Microbiome and Metabolome in Patients with Gout. Front Microbiol. 2017 Feb 21;8:268. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00268. eCollection 2017. [PubMed:28270806 ]
Coronary artery disease
  1. Fazekas L, Horkay F, Kekesi V, Huszar E, Barat E, Fazekas R, Szabo T, Juhasz-Nagy A, Naszlady A: Enhanced accumulation of pericardial fluid adenosine and inosine in patients with coronary artery disease. Life Sci. 1999;65(10):1005-12. [PubMed:10499868 ]
Attachment loss
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Periodontal Probing Depth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Tooth Decay
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB04335
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB011802
KNApSAcK IDC00019692
Chemspider ID5799
KEGG Compound IDC00294
BioCyc IDINOSINE
BiGG ID34525
Wikipedia LinkInosine
METLIN ID84
PubChem Compound6021
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17596
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDINS
MarkerDB IDMDB00000095
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceShi, Qingshan; Qiu, Yutang; Li, Liangqiu; Lin, Xiaoping. New inosine-producing bacterium and method for producing inosine. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2003), 6 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
  3. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2:18. [PubMed:15882454 ]
  4. Chantin C, Bonin B, Boulieu R, Bory C: Liquid-chromatographic study of purine metabolism abnormalities in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Clin Chem. 1996 Feb;42(2):326-8. [PubMed:8595732 ]
  5. Castro-Gago M, Cid E, Trabazo S, Pavon P, Camina F, Rodriguez-Segade S, Einis Punal J, Rodriguez-Nunez A: Cerebrospinal fluid purine metabolites and pyrimidine bases after brief febrile convulsions. Epilepsia. 1995 May;36(5):471-4. [PubMed:7614924 ]
  6. Rodriguez-Nunez A, Camina F, Lojo S, Rodriguez-Segade S, Castro-Gago M: Concentrations of nucleotides, nucleosides, purine bases and urate in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis. Acta Paediatr. 1993 Oct;82(10):849-52. [PubMed:8241644 ]
  7. Scott GS, Spitsin SV, Kean RB, Mikheeva T, Koprowski H, Hooper DC: Therapeutic intervention in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by administration of uric acid precursors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 10;99(25):16303-8. Epub 2002 Nov 25. [PubMed:12451183 ]
  8. Nakao T, Nagai F, Nakao M: Posttransfusion viability of rabbit erythrocytes preserved in a medium containing inosine, adenine, and isoosmotic sucrose. Vox Sang. 1982;42(4):217-22. [PubMed:7090336 ]
  9. Harkness RA, Lund RJ: Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uridine and inosine: high concentrations of the ATP metabolite, hypoxanthine, after hypoxia. J Clin Pathol. 1983 Jan;36(1):1-8. [PubMed:6681617 ]
  10. Hsiao G, Lin KH, Chang Y, Chen TL, Tzu NH, Chou DS, Sheu JR: Protective mechanisms of inosine in platelet activation and cerebral ischemic damage. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Sep;25(9):1998-2004. Epub 2005 Jun 23. [PubMed:15976325 ]
  11. Jabs CM, Sigurdsson GH, Neglen P: Plasma levels of high-energy compounds compared with severity of illness in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. Surgery. 1998 Jul;124(1):65-72. [PubMed:9663253 ]
  12. Fazekas L, Horkay F, Kekesi V, Huszar E, Barat E, Fazekas R, Szabo T, Juhasz-Nagy A, Naszlady A: Enhanced accumulation of pericardial fluid adenosine and inosine in patients with coronary artery disease. Life Sci. 1999;65(10):1005-12. [PubMed:10499868 ]
  13. Mattle HP, Lienert C, Greeve I: [Uric acid and multiple sclerosis]. Ther Umsch. 2004 Sep;61(9):553-5. [PubMed:15493114 ]
  14. Fukumori Y, Takeda H, Fujisawa T, Ushijima K, Onodera S, Shiomi N: Blood glucose and insulin concentrations are reduced in humans administered sucrose with inosine or adenosine. J Nutr. 2000 Aug;130(8):1946-9. [PubMed:10917906 ]
  15. Burger DM, Kraayeveld CL, Meenhorst PL, Mulder JW, Hoetelmans RM, Koks CH, Beijnen JH: Study on didanosine concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid. Implications for the treatment and prevention of AIDS dementia complex. Pharm World Sci. 1995 Nov 24;17(6):218-21. [PubMed:8597780 ]
  16. Mabley JG, Rabinovitch A, Suarez-Pinzon W, Hasko G, Pacher P, Power R, Southan G, Salzman A, Szabo C: Inosine protects against the development of diabetes in multiple-low-dose streptozotocin and nonobese diabetic mouse models of type 1 diabetes. Mol Med. 2003 Mar-Apr;9(3-4):96-104. [PubMed:12865945 ]
  17. Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Cheng J, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Ka T, Hada T: Effect of inosine on the plasma concentration of uridine and purine bases. Metabolism. 2002 Apr;51(4):438-42. [PubMed:11912550 ]
  18. Kurtz TW, Kabra PM, Booth BE, Al-Bander HA, Portale AA, Serena BG, Tsai HC, Morris RC Jr: Liquid-chromatographic measurements of inosine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine in studies of fructose-induced degradation of adenine nucleotides in humans and rats. Clin Chem. 1986 May;32(5):782-6. [PubMed:3698269 ]
  19. Niwa T, Takeda N, Yoshizumi H: RNA metabolism in uremic patients: accumulation of modified ribonucleosides in uremic serum. Technical note. Kidney Int. 1998 Jun;53(6):1801-6. [PubMed:9607216 ]
  20. Osborne WR, Hammond WP, Dale DC: Human cyclic hematopoiesis is associated with aberrant purine metabolism. J Lab Clin Med. 1985 Apr;105(4):403-9. [PubMed:3981053 ]
  21. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]
  22. Liu F, You SW, Yao LP, Liu HL, Jiao XY, Shi M, Zhao QB, Ju G: Secondary degeneration reduced by inosine after spinal cord injury in rats. Spinal Cord. 2006 Jul;44(7):421-6. doi: 10.1038/sj.sc.3101878. Epub 2005 Nov 29. [PubMed:16317421 ]
  23. Chen P, Goldberg DE, Kolb B, Lanser M, Benowitz LI: Inosine induces axonal rewiring and improves behavioral outcome after stroke. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 25;99(13):9031-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.132076299. [PubMed:12084941 ]
  24. Markowitz CE, Spitsin S, Zimmerman V, Jacobs D, Udupa JK, Hooper DC, Koprowski H: The treatment of multiple sclerosis with inosine. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Jun;15(6):619-25. doi: 10.1089/acm.2008.0513. [PubMed:19425822 ]
  25. Li D, Feng Y, Tian M, Ji J, Hu X, Chen F: Gut microbiota-derived inosine from dietary barley leaf supplementation attenuates colitis through PPARgamma signaling activation. Microbiome. 2021 Apr 5;9(1):83. doi: 10.1186/s40168-021-01028-7. [PubMed:33820558 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 13 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides.
Gene Name:
NT5E
Uniprot ID:
P21589
Molecular weight:
57948.125
Reactions
Inosinic acid + Water → Inosine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides. Helps to regulate adenosine levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NT5C1B
Uniprot ID:
Q96P26
Molecular weight:
68803.055
Reactions
Inosinic acid + Water → Inosine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides and has a broad substrate specificity. Helps to regulate adenosine levels in heart during ischemia and hypoxia.
Gene Name:
NT5C1A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXI3
Molecular weight:
41020.145
Reactions
Inosinic acid + Water → Inosine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides, with a preference for dUMP and dTMP, intermediate activity towards dGMP, and low activity towards dCMP and dAMP.
Gene Name:
NT5C
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCD5
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Inosinic acid + Water → Inosine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates specifically the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides, and so protects mitochondrial DNA replication from excess dTTP. Has only marginal activity towards dIMP and dGMP.
Gene Name:
NT5M
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPB1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Inosinic acid + Water → Inosine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
References
  1. STIRPE F, DELLACORTE E: REGULATION OF XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE IN CHICK LIVER. EFFECT OF STARVATION AND OF ADMINISTRATION OF PURINES AND PURINE NUCLEOSIDES. Biochem J. 1965 Feb;94:309-13. [PubMed:14348191 ]
General function:
Involved in deaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine. Plays an important role in purine metabolism and in adenosine homeostasis. Modulates signaling by extracellular adenosine, and so contributes indirectly to cellular signaling events. Acts as a positive regulator of T-cell coactivation, by binding DPP4. Its interaction with DPP4 regulates lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion.
Gene Name:
ADA
Uniprot ID:
P00813
Molecular weight:
40764.13
Reactions
Adenosine + Water → Inosine + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Functions as a polyspecific organic cation transporter, efficiently transporting many organic cations such as monoamine neurotransmitters 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and biogenic amines including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. May play a role in regulating central nervous system homeostasis of monoamine neurotransmitters. May be involved in luminal transport of organic cations in the kidney and seems to use luminal proton gradient to drive organic cation reabsorption. Does not seem to transport nucleoside and nucleoside analogs such as uridine, cytidine, thymidine, adenosine, inosine, guanosine, and azidothymidine. In (PubMed:16873718) adenosine is efficiently transported but in a fashion highly sensitive to extracellular pH, with maximal activity in the pH range 5.5 to 6.5. Glu-206 is essential for the cation selectivity and may function as the charge sensor for cationic substrates. Transport is chloride and sodium-independent but appears to be sensitive to changes in membrane potential. Weakly inhibited by the classical inhibitors of equilibrative nucleoside transport, dipyridamole, dilazep, and nitrobenzylthioinosine. May play a role in the regulation of extracellular adenosine concentrations in cardiac tissues, in particular during ischemia
Gene Name:
SLC29A4
Uniprot ID:
Q7RTT9
Molecular weight:
58058.0
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Can act both as nucleotidase and as phosphotransferase.
Gene Name:
NT5C3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H0P0
Molecular weight:
33914.91
Reactions
Inosinic acid + Water → Inosine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in 5'-nucleotidase activity
Specific function:
May have a critical role in the maintenance of a constant composition of intracellular purine/pyrimidine nucleotides in cooperation with other nucleotidases. Preferentially hydrolyzes inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and other purine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
NT5C2
Uniprot ID:
P49902
Molecular weight:
64969.2
Reactions
Inosinic acid + Water → Inosine + Phosphatedetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 13 proteins in total.