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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-10-09 20:58:33 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000227
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00227
  • HMDB0059629
  • HMDB59629
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMevalonic acid
DescriptionMevalonic acid (CAS: 150-97-0), also known as MVA, mevalonate, or hiochic acid, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxy fatty acids. These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a hydroxyl group. Mevalonic acid is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. Mevalonic acid is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as apples, corns, and wild carrots and in a lower concentration in garden tomato (var.), pepper (C. frutescens), and cucumbers. Mevalonic acid has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as sweet oranges, potato, milk (cow), cabbages, and white cabbages. This could make mevalonic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Mevalonic acid is a key organic compound in biochemistry. The production of mevalonic acid by the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, is the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol (PMID: 12872277 ). Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of MVA are decreased by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor drugs such as pravastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin (PMID: 8808497 ).
Structure
Data?1587750449
Synonyms
ValueSource
(R)-3,5-Dihydroxy-3-methylvaleric acidChEBI
(R)-MevalonateChEBI
3,5-Dihydroxy-3-methylvaleric acidChEBI
(R)-3,5-Dihydroxy-3-methylvalerateGenerator
(R)-Mevalonic acidGenerator
3,5-Dihydroxy-3-methylvalerateGenerator
MevalonateGenerator
Acid, mevalonicMeSH
Mevalonic acidChEBI
(3R)-3,5-Dihydroxy-3-methylpentanoic acidHMDB
(3R)-Mevalonic acidHMDB
(R)-(-)-Mevalonic acidHMDB
(R)-3,5-Dihydroxy-3-methylpentanoic acidHMDB
2,4-Dideoxy-3-C-methylpentonic acidHMDB
3,5-Dihydroxy-3-methylpentanoic acidHMDB
Hiochic acidHMDB
MVAHMDB
R-Mevalonic acidHMDB
beta,delta-Dihydroxy-beta-methylvaleric acidHMDB
β,δ-Dihydroxy-β-methylvaleric acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O4
Average Molecular Weight148.1571
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight148.073558872
IUPAC Name(3R)-3,5-dihydroxy-3-methylpentanoic acid
Traditional Namemevalonic acid
CAS Registry Number17817-88-8
SMILES
C[C@@](O)(CCO)CC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O4/c1-6(10,2-3-7)4-5(8)9/h7,10H,2-4H2,1H3,(H,8,9)/t6-/m1/s1
InChI KeyKJTLQQUUPVSXIM-ZCFIWIBFSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxy fatty acids. These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentHydroxy fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Short-chain hydroxy acid
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point24 - 27 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility414 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.9ALOGPS
logP-1.1ChemAxon
logS0.45ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.38ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity34.51 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability14.57 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0f79-9400000000-1432953ab200e13ed3a7Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00bj-9372000000-2a6b263d37306947c327Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0002-2900000000-d1dc97020c103f2a916bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9000000000-b4dc45e964aee6759d93Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9100000000-98f7e8ee013680f4f610Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-2900000000-00a30c20b0fe2afce7d8Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03ej-9700000000-c6f9687555150d5ef1a7Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01bi-9100000000-7047d67f0ba1f8aa28efSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0f72-3900000000-0f765b34011b73405addSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-9500000000-dd24fe04989af5af1151Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052s-9100000000-251b958b3e4355c6f2f6Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Leukocyte
  • Liver
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.028 +/- 0.006 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.043 +/- 0.013 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.026(0.013-0.042) uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.160 (0.0800-0.300) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.14 (0.06-0.22) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0531 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.178 (0.0515-0.545) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.012 +/- 0.002 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSmith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome details
BloodDetected and Quantified70-540 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothMevalonic aciduria details
BloodDetected and Quantified20-140 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothMevalonic aciduria details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleAttachment loss  details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleMissing teeth details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MalePeriodontal Probing Depth details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleTooth Decay details
UrineDetected and Quantified2100-56000 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothMevalonic aciduria details
UrineDetected and Quantified900-14500 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothMevalonic aciduria details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
  1. Honda M, Tint GS, Honda A, Salen G, Shefer S, Batta AK, Matsuzaki Y, Tanaka N: Regulation of cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in patients with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2000 Jul;23(5):464-74. [PubMed:10947201 ]
Attachment loss
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Missing teeth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Periodontal Probing Depth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Tooth Decay
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Mevalonic aciduria
  1. Hoffmann GF, Charpentier C, Mayatepek E, Mancini J, Leichsenring M, Gibson KM, Divry P, Hrebicek M, Lehnert W, Sartor K, et al.: Clinical and biochemical phenotype in 11 patients with mevalonic aciduria. Pediatrics. 1993 May;91(5):915-21. [PubMed:8386351 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB03518
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB005126
KNApSAcK IDC00001195
Chemspider ID388367
KEGG Compound IDC00418
BioCyc IDMEVALONATE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMevalonic_acid
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound439230
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17710
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDMEV_R
MarkerDB IDMDB00000109
References
Synthesis ReferenceTakahara, Kenji; Nakamura, Yoshio; Ohashi, Takehisa; Watanabe, Kiyoshi. Fermentative production of mevalonic acid. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1985), 4 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Dmitrieva NA, Perrun'kina AM, Khomulo PS: [Determination of mevalonic acid in the urine and its concentration in the urine of patients with atherosclerosis]. Vopr Med Khim. 1968 Jan-Feb;14(1):106-8. [PubMed:5683362 ]
  2. Larson RA, Chung J, Scanu AM, Yachnin S: Neutrophils are required for the DNA synthetic response of human lymphocytes to mevalonic acid: evidence suggesting that a nonsterol product of mevalonate is involved. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 May;79(9):3028-32. [PubMed:6953445 ]
  3. Siavoshian S, Simoneau C, Maugeais P, Marks L, Rodary L, Gardette J, Krempf M: Measurement of mevalonic acid in human urine by bench top gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chim Acta. 1995 Dec 29;243(2):129-36. [PubMed:8747489 ]
  4. Houten SM, Kuis W, Duran M, de Koning TJ, van Royen-Kerkhof A, Romeijn GJ, Frenkel J, Dorland L, de Barse MM, Huijbers WA, Rijkers GT, Waterham HR, Wanders RJ, Poll-The BT: Mutations in MVK, encoding mevalonate kinase, cause hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and periodic fever syndrome. Nat Genet. 1999 Jun;22(2):175-7. [PubMed:10369261 ]
  5. Mitchell ED Jr, Avigan J: Control of phosphorylation and decarboxylation of mevalonic acid and its metabolites in cultured human fibroblasts and in rat liver in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1981 Jun 25;256(12):6170-3. [PubMed:6263908 ]
  6. Abrar M, Martin PD: Validation and application of an assay for the determination of mevalonic acid in human plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Jun 25;773(2):103-11. [PubMed:12031835 ]
  7. Haas D, Kelley RI, Hoffmann GF: Inherited disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis. Neuropediatrics. 2001 Jun;32(3):113-22. [PubMed:11521206 ]
  8. Larson RA, Kluskens LE, Yachnin S: The DNA synthetic response of normal and abnormal human lymphocytes to mevalonic acid: the role of granulocytes as a helper population. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1984 Sep;74(3 Pt 1):280-90. [PubMed:6236250 ]
  9. Larson RA, Yachnin S: Mevalonic acid induces DNA synthesis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Blood. 1984 Jul;64(1):257-62. [PubMed:6610447 ]
  10. Parker TS, McNamara DJ, Brown CD, Kolb R, Ahrens EH Jr, Alberts AW, Tobert J, Chen J, De Schepper PJ: Plasma mevalonate as a measure of cholesterol synthesis in man. J Clin Invest. 1984 Sep;74(3):795-804. [PubMed:6565710 ]
  11. Hoffmann GF, Sweetman L, Bremer HJ, Hunneman DH, Hyanek J, Kozich V, Lehnert W, Nyhan WL, Speidel I, Trefz FK, et al.: Facts and artefacts in mevalonic aciduria: development of a stable isotope dilution GCMS assay for mevalonic acid and its application to physiological fluids, tissue samples, prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection. Clin Chim Acta. 1991 May 15;198(3):209-27. [PubMed:1653652 ]
  12. Hoffmann G, Gibson KM, Brandt IK, Bader PI, Wappner RS, Sweetman L: Mevalonic aciduria--an inborn error of cholesterol and nonsterol isoprene biosynthesis. N Engl J Med. 1986 Jun 19;314(25):1610-4. [PubMed:3012338 ]
  13. Jemal M, Schuster A, Whigan DB: Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods for quantitation of mevalonic acid in human plasma and urine: method validation, demonstration of using a surrogate analyte, and demonstration of unacceptable matrix effect in spite of use of a stable isotope analog internal standard. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2003;17(15):1723-34. [PubMed:12872277 ]
  14. Lindenthal B, von Bergmann K: Urinary excretion and serum concentration of mevalonic acid during acute intake of alcohol. Metabolism. 2000 Jan;49(1):62-6. [PubMed:10647065 ]
  15. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  16. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  17. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  18. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  19. Naoumova RP, Marais AD, Mountney J, Firth JC, Rendell NB, Taylor GW, Thompson GR: Plasma mevalonic acid, an index of cholesterol synthesis in vivo, and responsiveness to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in familial hypercholesterolaemia. Atherosclerosis. 1996 Jan 26;119(2):203-13. doi: 10.1016/0021-9150(95)05649-1. [PubMed:8808497 ]
  20. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) activity
Specific function:
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including ubiquinone and geranylgeranyl proteins.
Gene Name:
HMGCR
Uniprot ID:
P04035
Molecular weight:
97475.155
Reactions
Mevalonic acid + Coenzyme A + NADP → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPHdetails
Mevalonic acid + Coenzyme A + NADP → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May be a regulatory site in cholesterol biosynthetic pathway.
Gene Name:
MVK
Uniprot ID:
Q03426
Molecular weight:
42450.475
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Mevalonic acid → ADP + Mevalonic acid-5Pdetails