You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-07 16:24:14 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000300
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00300
Metabolite Identification
Common NameUracil
DescriptionUracil, also known as U, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidones. Pyrimidones are compounds that contain a pyrimidine ring, which bears a ketone. Pyrimidine is a 6-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen centers at the 1- and 3- ring positions. Uracil is a common naturally occurring pyrimidine found in RNA. It base pairs with adenine and is replaced by thymine in DNA. Uracil is one of the four nucleobases in RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. Methylation of uracil produces thymine. The name "uracil" was coined in 1885 by the German chemist Robert Behrend, who was attempting to synthesize derivatives of uric acid. Originally discovered in 1900, uracil was isolated by hydrolysis of yeast nuclein that was found in bovine thymus and spleen, herring sperm, and wheat germ. Uracil exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to plants to humans. Uracil's use in the body is to help carry out the synthesis of many enzymes necessary for cell function through bonding with riboses and phosphates. Uracil serves as an allosteric regulator and a coenzyme for many important biochemical reactions. Uracil (via the nucleoside uridine) can be phosphorylated by various kinases to produce UMP, UDP and UTP. UDP and UTP regulate carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (CPSase II) activity in animals. Uracil is also involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides and in the transport of sugars containing aldehydes. Within humans, uracil participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, uracil and ribose 1-phosphate can be biosynthesized from uridine; which is mediated by the enzyme uridine phosphorylase 2. In addition, uracil can be converted into dihydrouracil through the action of the enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]. Uracil is rarely found in DNA, and this may have been an evolutionary change to increase genetic stability. This is because cytosine can deaminate spontaneously to produce uracil through hydrolytic deamination. Therefore, if there were an organism that used uracil in its DNA, the deamination of cytosine (which undergoes base pairing with guanine) would lead to formation of uracil (which would base pair with adenine) during DNA synthesis. Uracil can be used for drug delivery and as a pharmaceutical. When elemental fluorine reacts with uracil, it produces 5-fluorouracil. 5-Fluorouracil is an anticancer drug (antimetabolite) that mimics uracil during the nucleic acid (i.e. RNA) synthesis and transcription process. Because 5-fluorouracil is similar in shape to, but does not undergo the same chemistry as, uracil, the drug inhibits RNA replication enzymes, thereby blocking RNA synthesis and stopping the growth of cancerous cells.
Structure
Data?1582752121
Synonyms
ValueSource
2,4(1H,3H)-PyrimidinedioneChEBI
2,4-DioxopyrimidineChEBI
2,4-PyrimidinedioneChEBI
UChEBI
UraChEBI
UrazilChEBI
2,4-DihydroxypyrimidineHMDB
2,4-PyrimidinediolHMDB
Hybar XHMDB
PirodHMDB
PyrodHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H4N2O2
Average Molecular Weight112.0868
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight112.027277382
IUPAC Name1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2,4-dione
Traditional Nameuracil
CAS Registry Number66-22-8
SMILES
O=C1NC=CC(=O)N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H4N2O2/c7-3-1-2-5-4(8)6-3/h1-2H,(H2,5,6,7,8)
InChI KeyISAKRJDGNUQOIC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidones. Pyrimidones are compounds that contain a pyrimidine ring, which bears a ketone. Pyrimidine is a 6-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen centers at the 1- and 3- ring positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentPyrimidones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyrimidone
  • Hydropyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point330 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.6 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-1.07HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility26.5 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.2ALOGPS
logP-0.86ChemAxon
logS-0.63ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.2 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity25.97 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability9.37 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Collision Cross Sections

NameAdductTypeData SourceValueReference
DeepCCS[M-H]-ExperimentalAstarita_neg115.030932474
DeepCCS[M+H]+ExperimentalAstarita_pos115.030932474
DeepCCS[M+H]+ExperimentalBaker126.97930932474
DeepCCS[M+H]+ExperimentalMetCCS_test_pos118.47930932474
AllCCS[M-H]-ExperimentalNot Available114.0http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000480
AllCCS[M+H]+ExperimentalNot Available122.7http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000480
DarkChem[M+H]+PredictedNot Available119.69931661259
DarkChem[M-H]-PredictedNot Available117.13331661259
AllCCS[M+H]+PredictedNot Available124.16832859911
AllCCS[M-H]-PredictedNot Available117.16532859911

Retention Indices

Underivatized

Not Available

Derivatized

Not Available
Spectra

GC-MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-5950000000-18425875415ad150c4fc2014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-006t-9740000000-e884a4b98e7e9dc75e5f2014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-052e-7790000000-026cb6beb5cde6a61b802014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-02tc-9200000000-4a57c4e06fd552d6a9bf2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-03xu-9400000000-1c29f070a8135b06f88b2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-5950000000-18425875415ad150c4fc2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-006t-9740000000-e884a4b98e7e9dc75e5f2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-052e-7790000000-026cb6beb5cde6a61b802017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-6940000000-a726178341f6443e60cc2017-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03xu-9300000000-6a96f6ce1ef7316891072016-09-22View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03xu-9400000000-d7ffe72f606f1af3349b2014-09-20View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-8900000000-5b42adf83e422cffefb62021-09-18View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9800000000-24fa3ff739ff064312ab2021-09-18View Spectrum

LC-MS/MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-3900000000-e422eda255a4b6414f862012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-006y-9000000000-130eb5f4414426e036672012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9100000000-c096d08ca715d97cd7322012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-60) , Positivesplash10-02tc-9200000000-83a0a6ad4fc1b407e5702012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-03xu-9400000000-acd0cfd54af7d6a552832012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-309fe212c929f3c6a9302012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-6900000000-55a7de75a40eab61da8b2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-1c3caab26eb7e359db922012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-7494d4e611a73ecb79ea2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-ed4046b040337db620d82012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-ff54f3083ce4ccccfd952012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-6728c1eb6f68b40c09f82012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-309fe212c929f3c6a9302017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-6900000000-55a7de75a40eab61da8b2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-1c3caab26eb7e359db922017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-7494d4e611a73ecb79ea2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-ed4046b040337db620d82017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-6728c1eb6f68b40c09f82017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-a21102c708f8d5eaf2622017-09-14View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-0029cbdcaa1377a4d03e2015-05-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0229-9400000000-c227e1deb392170cb3232015-05-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-3cf6f9fc3ab6890266ac2015-05-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-4900000000-67a3d94ab649e28bda132015-05-27View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-bbf50de54fc413b6588e2015-05-27View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-98042b91f1087b0c25632015-05-27View Spectrum

NMR

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateView
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, DMSO-d6, experimental)2014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100.72 MHz, DMSO-d6, experimental)2014-09-23View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, D2O, experimental)2016-10-22View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 1H] 2D NMR Spectrum (predicted)2012-12-04View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, predicted)2012-12-05View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen Locations
  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Amniotic FluidDetected and Quantified0.87 +/- 0.69 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.17 (0.097-0.26) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.10 +/- 1.02 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified<2 uMChildren (3 months - 6 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.1 +/- 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedBoth
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified38.89 +/- 12.38 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.914-33.918 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.5 (2.37-3.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.01 +/-4.73 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7-29 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified8-78 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-0.8 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-0.9 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Female
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.13 +/- 5.43 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-2.8 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Female
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.81 +/- 5.09 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.29 +/- 5.78 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified<20.85 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.5 (2.6-22.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.021 +/- 9.32 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.400-3.600 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified<3 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.99 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-26 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified8-110 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.25 +/- 0.98 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.250 +/- 1.380 uMChildren (3 months - 6 years old)Not Specified
Uremia
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleMyalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedasymptomatic diverticulosis details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedsymptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUnclassified IBD details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleAttachment loss  details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleMissing teeth details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MalePeriodontal Probing Depth details
UrineDetected and Quantified495.881 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleDihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified624.657 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleDihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.0 (2.0-22.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothArgininemia
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified35.0 (20.0-50.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothArgininemia
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified265.0 (30.0-500.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothCarbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency
    • MetaGene: Metabol...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.00 +/- 4.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothHypertension details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.00 +/- 4.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCerebral infarction details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.00 +/- 13.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothMalignancy details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.00 +/- 6.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothLiver dysfunction details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.24 +/- 7.24 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.6 +/- 2.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNephropathy details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified38.573 +/- 84.754 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified48 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MaleMolybdenium co-factor deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified321.0904 (290.564-368.576) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Arginase Deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified144.265 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MaleArgininemia details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [PubMed:16139832 ]
Uremia
  1. Vanholder R, De Smet R, Glorieux G, Argiles A, Baurmeister U, Brunet P, Clark W, Cohen G, De Deyn PP, Deppisch R, Descamps-Latscha B, Henle T, Jorres A, Lemke HD, Massy ZA, Passlick-Deetjen J, Rodriguez M, Stegmayr B, Stenvinkel P, Tetta C, Wanner C, Zidek W: Review on uremic toxins: classification, concentration, and interindividual variability. Kidney Int. 2003 May;63(5):1934-43. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00924.x. [PubMed:12675874 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Diverticular disease
  1. Tursi A, Mastromarino P, Capobianco D, Elisei W, Miccheli A, Capuani G, Tomassini A, Campagna G, Picchio M, Giorgetti G, Fabiocchi F, Brandimarte G: Assessment of Fecal Microbiota and Fecal Metabolome in Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease of the Colon. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2016 Oct;50 Suppl 1:S9-S12. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000626. [PubMed:27622378 ]
Attachment loss
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Missing teeth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Periodontal Probing Depth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Argininemia
  1. Naylor EW, Cederbaum SD: Urinary pyrimidine excretion in arginase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1981;4(4):207-10. [PubMed:6796772 ]
  2. Brockstedt M, Smit LM, de Grauw AJ, van der Klei-van Moorsel JM, Jakobs C: A new case of hyperargininaemia: neurological and biochemical findings prior to and during dietary treatment. Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Feb;149(5):341-3. [PubMed:2311630 ]
  3. G.Frauendienst-Egger, Friedrich K. Trefz (2017). MetaGene: Metabolic & Genetic Information Center (MIC: http://www.metagene.de). METAGENE consortium.
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase Deficiency
  1. G.Frauendienst-Egger, Friedrich K. Trefz (2017). MetaGene: Metabolic & Genetic Information Center (MIC: http://www.metagene.de). METAGENE consortium.
Hypertension
  1. Hayashi K, Kidouchi K, Sumi S, Mizokami M, Orito E, Kumada K, Ueda R, Wada Y: Possible prediction of adverse reactions to pyrimidine chemotherapy from urinary pyrimidine levels and a case of asymptomatic adult dihydropyrimidinuria. Clin Cancer Res. 1996 Dec;2(12):1937-41. [PubMed:9816152 ]
Cerebral infarction
  1. Hayashi K, Kidouchi K, Sumi S, Mizokami M, Orito E, Kumada K, Ueda R, Wada Y: Possible prediction of adverse reactions to pyrimidine chemotherapy from urinary pyrimidine levels and a case of asymptomatic adult dihydropyrimidinuria. Clin Cancer Res. 1996 Dec;2(12):1937-41. [PubMed:9816152 ]
Liver disease
  1. Hayashi K, Kidouchi K, Sumi S, Mizokami M, Orito E, Kumada K, Ueda R, Wada Y: Possible prediction of adverse reactions to pyrimidine chemotherapy from urinary pyrimidine levels and a case of asymptomatic adult dihydropyrimidinuria. Clin Cancer Res. 1996 Dec;2(12):1937-41. [PubMed:9816152 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Colorectal cancer
  1. Ni Y, Xie G, Jia W: Metabonomics of human colorectal cancer: new approaches for early diagnosis and biomarker discovery. J Proteome Res. 2014 Sep 5;13(9):3857-70. doi: 10.1021/pr500443c. Epub 2014 Aug 14. [PubMed:25105552 ]
  2. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  3. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  4. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
  1. Brockstedt M, Jakobs C, Smit LM, van Gennip AH, Berger R: A new case of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1990;13(1):121-4. [PubMed:2109146 ]
Molybdenium co-factor deficiency
  1. Nagappa M, Bindu PS, Taly AB, Sinha S, Bharath RD: Child Neurology: Molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Neurology. 2015 Dec 8;85(23):e175-8. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000002194. [PubMed:26644055 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB03419
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB006426
KNApSAcK IDC00001513
Chemspider ID1141
KEGG Compound IDC00106
BioCyc IDURACIL
BiGG ID33879
Wikipedia LinkUracil
METLIN ID258
PubChem Compound1174
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17568
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDURA
MarkerDB IDMDB00000139
References
Synthesis ReferenceBurckhalter, J. H.; Scarborough, Homer C. The synthesis of uracils as anticonvulsants. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (1912-1977) (1955), 44 545-50.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Spector T, Harrington JA, Porter DJ: 5-Ethynyluracil (776C85): inactivation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in vivo. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Dec 14;46(12):2243-8. [PubMed:8274158 ]
  2. Hofmann U, Schwab M, Seefried S, Marx C, Zanger UM, Eichelbaum M, Murdter TE: Sensitive method for the quantification of urinary pyrimidine metabolites in healthy adults by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 5;791(1-2):371-80. [PubMed:12798197 ]
  3. Mani S, Kugler JW, Sciortino DF, Garcia JC, Ansari RH, Humerickhouse R, Michelassi F, Posner MC, Shulman KL, Schilsky RL, List M, Vokes EE, Benner S: Phase II trial of uracil/tegafur (UFT) plus leucovorin in patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma: a University of Chicago phase II consortium study. Ann Oncol. 1998 Sep;9(9):1035-7. [PubMed:9818081 ]
  4. Tomita T, Tajima T, Ishibashi M, Tagaya N, Aoki H, Itoh S, Kadowaki A, Kogure H, Tajima Y: [Study on the concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), tegafur (ET) and uracil in bile: comparison of UFT or FT]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1989 Dec;16(12):3755-62. [PubMed:2512859 ]
  5. Duthie SJ, McMillan P: Uracil misincorporation in human DNA detected using single cell gel electrophoresis. Carcinogenesis. 1997 Sep;18(9):1709-14. [PubMed:9328165 ]
  6. Bayer AS, Galpin JE, Theofilopoulos AN, Guze LB: Neurological disease associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonitis: demonstration of viable Mycoplasma pneumoniae in cerebrospinal fluid and blood by radioisotopic and immunofluorescent tissue culture techniques. Ann Intern Med. 1981 Jan;94(1):15-20. [PubMed:6778283 ]
  7. Feliu J, Mel R, Borrega P, Lopez Gomez L, Escudero P, Dorta J, Castro J, Vazquez-Estevez SE, Bolanos M, Espinosa E, Gonzalez Baron M: Phase II study of a fixed dose-rate infusion of gemcitabine associated with uracil/tegafur in advanced carcinoma of the pancreas. Ann Oncol. 2002 Nov;13(11):1756-62. [PubMed:12419748 ]
  8. Jakobs C, Sweetman L, Nyhan WL, Gruenke L, Craig JC, Wadman SK: Stable isotope dilution analysis of orotic acid and uracil in amniotic fluid. Clin Chim Acta. 1984 Nov 15;143(2):123-33. [PubMed:6391739 ]
  9. van Lenthe H, van Kuilenburg AB, Ito T, Bootsma AH, van Cruchten A, Wada Y, van Gennip AH: Defects in pyrimidine degradation identified by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of urine specimens or urine-soaked filter paper strips. Clin Chem. 2000 Dec;46(12):1916-22. [PubMed:11106323 ]
  10. Mashiyama ST, Courtemanche C, Elson-Schwab I, Crott J, Lee BL, Ong CN, Fenech M, Ames BN: Uracil in DNA, determined by an improved assay, is increased when deoxynucleosides are added to folate-deficient cultured human lymphocytes. Anal Biochem. 2004 Jul 1;330(1):58-69. [PubMed:15183762 ]
  11. DeAngelis LM, Kreis W, Chan K, Dantis E, Akerman S: Pharmacokinetics of ara-C and ara-U in plasma and CSF after high-dose administration of cytosine arabinoside. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1992;29(3):173-7. [PubMed:1733548 ]
  12. Stover PJ, Garza C: Bringing individuality to public health recommendations. J Nutr. 2002 Aug;132(8 Suppl):2476S-2480S. [PubMed:12163715 ]
  13. Sweatman BC, Farrant RD, Holmes E, Ghauri FY, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC: 600 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of human cerebrospinal fluid: effects of sample manipulation and assignment of resonances. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1993 Aug;11(8):651-64. [PubMed:8257730 ]
  14. Allgayer H, Kolb M, Stuber V, Kruis W: Effects of bile acids on base hydroxylation in a model of human colonic mucosal DNA. Cancer Detect Prev. 2002;26(1):85-9. [PubMed:12088208 ]
  15. Duthie SJ, Hawdon A: DNA instability (strand breakage, uracil misincorporation, and defective repair) is increased by folic acid depletion in human lymphocytes in vitro. FASEB J. 1998 Nov;12(14):1491-7. [PubMed:9806758 ]
  16. van Kuilenburg AB, van Lenthe H, Loffler M, van Gennip AH: Analysis of pyrimidine synthesis "de novo" intermediates in urine and dried urine filter- paper strips with HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2004 Nov;50(11):2117-24. Epub 2004 Sep 16. [PubMed:15375016 ]
  17. Hanaue H, Kurosawa T, Kitano Y, Miyakawa S, Nemoto A, Yamamoto H, Asagoe T, Takada T, Yasuda H, Shikata J: Anticancer drug distribution in lymph and blood during adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for gastric carcinoma. A study with a combined preparation of 1-(2-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil and uracil. Cancer. 1987 May 1;59(9):1571-6. [PubMed:3103905 ]
  18. Jiang H, Jiang J, Hu P, Hu Y: Measurement of endogenous uracil and dihydrouracil in plasma and urine of normal subjects by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Mar 25;769(1):169-76. [PubMed:11936689 ]
  19. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  20. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Involved in pyrimidine base degradation. Catalyzes the reduction of uracil and thymine. Also involved the degradation of the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil.
Gene Name:
DPYD
Uniprot ID:
Q12882
Molecular weight:
111400.32
Reactions
Dihydrouracil + NADP → Uracil + NADPHdetails
Dihydrouracil + NADP → Uracil + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate.
Gene Name:
PNP
Uniprot ID:
P00491
Molecular weight:
32117.69
Reactions
Deoxyuridine + Phosphate → Uracil + Deoxyribose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
May have a role in maintaining the integrity of the blood vessels. Has growth promoting activity on endothelial cells, angiogenic activity in vivo and chemotactic activity on endothelial cells in vitro. Catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of thymidine. The produced molecules are then utilized as carbon and energy sources or in the rescue of pyrimidine bases for nucleotide synthesis.
Gene Name:
TYMP
Uniprot ID:
P19971
Molecular weight:
49954.965
Reactions
Deoxyuridine + Phosphate → Uracil + Deoxyribose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylytic cleavage of uridine and deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose- or deoxyribose-1-phosphate. The produced molecules are then utilized as carbon and energy sources or in the rescue of pyrimidine bases for nucleotide synthesis.
Gene Name:
UPP1
Uniprot ID:
Q16831
Molecular weight:
33934.005
Reactions
Uridine + Phosphate → Uracil + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylytic cleavage of uridine and deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose- or deoxyribose-1-phosphate. The produced molecules are then utilized as carbon and energy sources or in the rescue of pyrimidine bases for nucleotide synthesis. Shows substrate specificity and accept uridine, deoxyuridine, and thymidine as well as the two pyrimidine nucleoside analogs 5-fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2(')-deoxyuridine as substrates.
Gene Name:
UPP2
Uniprot ID:
O95045
Molecular weight:
41601.795
Reactions
Uridine + Phosphate → Uracil + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May contribute to UTP accumulation needed for blast transformation and proliferation.
Gene Name:
UCKL1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NWZ5
Molecular weight:
59465.77
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in nucleoside metabolic process
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
UPRT
Uniprot ID:
Q96BW1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Uridine 5'-monophosphate + Pyrophosphate → Uracil + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Dual specificity receptor for uracil nucleotides and cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). Signals through G(i) and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. May mediate brain damage by nucleotides and CysLTs following ischemia
Gene Name:
GPR17
Uniprot ID:
Q13304
Molecular weight:
40989.0