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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:49:04 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000638
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00638
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDodecanoic acid
DescriptionDodecanoic acid, also known as dodecanoate or lauric acid, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as medium-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 4 and 12 carbon atoms. Dodecanoic acid is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. Dodecanoic acid is the main fatty acid in coconut oil and in palm kernel oil, and is believed to have antimicrobial properties. It is a white, powdery solid with a faint odour of bay oil. Dodecanoic acid, although slightly irritating to mucous membranes, has a very low toxicity and so is used in many soaps and shampoos.
Structure
Data?1583431794
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-Undecanecarboxylic acidChEBI
ABLChEBI
C12 Fatty acidChEBI
C12:0ChEBI
CH3-[CH2]10-COOHChEBI
Coconut oil fatty acidsChEBI
DAOChEBI
Dodecoic acidChEBI
DodecylcarboxylateChEBI
Dodecylic acidChEBI
Duodecyclic acidChEBI
Duodecylic acidChEBI
Lauric acidChEBI
LaurinsaeureChEBI
Laurostearic acidChEBI
N-Dodecanoic acidChEBI
Undecane-1-carboxylic acidChEBI
Vulvic acidChEBI
DodecanoateKegg
1-UndecanecarboxylateGenerator
DodecoateGenerator
Dodecylcarboxylic acidGenerator
DodecylateGenerator
DuodecyclateGenerator
DuodecylateGenerator
LaateGenerator
Laic acidGenerator
LaurostearateGenerator
N-DodecanoateGenerator
Undecane-1-carboxylateGenerator
VulvateGenerator
Aliphat no. 4HMDB
Edenor C 1298-100HMDB
Emery 651HMDB
Hystrene 9512HMDB
Kortacid 1299HMDB
LaurateHMDB
Lunac L 70HMDB
Lunac L 98HMDB
Neo-fat 12HMDB
Neo-fat 12-43HMDB
Nissan naa 122HMDB
Philacid 1200HMDB
Prifac 2920HMDB
Univol u 314HMDB
1-Dodecanoic acidHMDB
FA(12:0)HMDB
Dodecanoic acidPhytoBank
Chemical FormulaC12H24O2
Average Molecular Weight200.3178
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight200.177630012
IUPAC Namedodecanoic acid
Traditional Namelauric acid
CAS Registry Number143-07-7
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C12H24O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12(13)14/h2-11H2,1H3,(H,13,14)
InChI KeyPOULHZVOKOAJMA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as medium-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 4 and 12 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentMedium-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Source

Process

Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point44 - 46 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.0048 mg/mLNot Available
LogP4.60SANGSTER (1993)
Experimental Chromatographic Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

Adduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
[M-H]-MetCCS_train_neg152.58430932474
[M-H]-Not Available153.8http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000205
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.01 g/LALOGPS
logP5.13ALOGPS
logP4.48ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity58.68 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability25.85 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+150.90931661259
DarkChem[M-H]-150.12531661259
AllCCS[M+H]+152.71532859911
AllCCS[M-H]-154.08632859911
DeepCCS[M+H]+151.62930932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-147.80930932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-184.93130932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+160.4430932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Dodecanoic acidCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O2460.7Standard polar33892256
Dodecanoic acidCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O1547.1Standard non polar33892256
Dodecanoic acidCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O1578.3Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Dodecanoic acid,1TMS,isomer #1CCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C1651.0Semi standard non polar33892256
Dodecanoic acid,1TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1881.0Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-0910000000-a12b321a54a44ae289722014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-014i-2910000000-d52410168e784872a5a62014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-06xx-9100000000-1ef5cd411f38c53a0a922017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0706-9100000000-e66a9147257053b937022017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0706-9100000000-2dd666a9a0355b1ca1442017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-074i-9300000000-405ec308fe8c935c62a22017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-067i-0930000000-6a80d41e346f4b10104c2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-0910000000-a12b321a54a44ae289722017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-2910000000-d52410168e784872a5a62017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-1910000000-8246864bf316bce609a22017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9500000000-e05832f94ff0361363a22016-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05g0-9310000000-038e232cccb44582ec9c2017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-074l-9100000000-911a01d38925d0de481f2014-09-20Not AvailableView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-0udi-2290000000-861c4b7b2da35b82ef7f2012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-0a4l-9100000000-966cf4c6621fcec413682012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-054o-9000000000-d43dd32656ad22e95fdd2012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-06xx-9100000000-a71409efaf5fdd6ab0e12012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid EI-B (JEOL JMS-AX-505-H) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-0706-9100000000-eb09296a8c4c7c381b382012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0900000000-f22d8298d64e6f3822792012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0900000000-4bb88d3b1d2b7ac881522012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0900000000-0c79a7257b53685108c62012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-9600000000-25d268515337ef276c602012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-009b-9000000000-c00963f9b91f4a82e1ef2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0900000000-f22d8298d64e6f3822792017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0900000000-4bb88d3b1d2b7ac881522017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0900000000-0c79a7257b53685108c62017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-0920000000-63cd88b9477cd281d3422015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a5c-4910000000-94738a1f436dcf1abced2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-052f-9100000000-07ca8cffe5ba2f9f920d2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-0920000000-63cd88b9477cd281d3422015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a5c-4910000000-94738a1f436dcf1abced2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-052f-9100000000-07ca8cffe5ba2f9f920d2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0900000000-1655e63166b4d9dd4f592015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0532-1900000000-7c55a9ca2b49d49200292015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4l-9400000000-ed8f6bcf96c68ac847382015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0900000000-1655e63166b4d9dd4f592015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0532-1900000000-7c55a9ca2b49d49200292015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dodecanoic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4l-9400000000-ed8f6bcf96c68ac847382015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)2012-12-04Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Epidermis
  • Liver
  • Prostate
  • Thyroid Gland
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified12.0 (2.0-37.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.47 +/- 0.68 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified9.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.719 +/- 0.029 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.8 +/- 2.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedInfant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SweatDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.02 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Metastatic melanoma
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothOral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothOral leukoplakia (OLK) details
SweatDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specifiedscreen-positive CF details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Metastatic melanoma
  1. Frankel AE, Coughlin LA, Kim J, Froehlich TW, Xie Y, Frenkel EP, Koh AY: Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing and Unbiased Metabolomic Profiling Identify Specific Human Gut Microbiota and Metabolites Associated with Immune Checkpoint Therapy Efficacy in Melanoma Patients. Neoplasia. 2017 Oct;19(10):848-855. doi: 10.1016/j.neo.2017.08.004. Epub 2017 Sep 15. [PubMed:28923537 ]
Cystic fibrosis
  1. Adriana Nori de Macedo. Robust capillary electrophoresis methods for biomarker discovery and routine measurements in clinical and epidemiological applications. March 2017 [Link]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB03017
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB003010
KNApSAcK IDC00001221
Chemspider ID3756
KEGG Compound IDC02679
BioCyc IDDODECANOATE
BiGG ID40351
Wikipedia LinkLauric_acid
METLIN ID5611
PubChem Compound3893
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30805
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDDDCA
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceStepanova, G. A.; Markevich, V. S.; Garanin, V. I.; Stychinskii, G. F. Synthesis of lauric acid. Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost (Moscow, Russian Federation) (1974), (12), 930.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [PubMed:8412012 ]
  3. Amet Y, Berthou F, Fournier G, Dreano Y, Bardou L, Cledes J, Menez JF: Cytochrome P450 4A and 2E1 expression in human kidney microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Mar 21;53(6):765-71. [PubMed:9113097 ]
  4. Smith SW, Anderson BD: Human skin permeability enhancement by lauric acid under equilibrium aqueous conditions. J Pharm Sci. 1995 May;84(5):551-6. [PubMed:7658343 ]
  5. Powell PK, Wolf I, Lasker JM: Identification of CYP4A11 as the major lauric acid omega-hydroxylase in human liver microsomes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1996 Nov 1;335(1):219-26. [PubMed:8914854 ]
  6. Ryan MT, Chopra RK: The paradoxical effect of fatty acid on steroid-albumin interaction. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Mar 18;427(1):337-49. [PubMed:1260006 ]
  7. Amet Y, Berthou F, Baird S, Dreano Y, Bail JP, Menez JF: Validation of the (omega-1)-hydroxylation of lauric acid as an in vitro substrate probe for human liver CYP2E1. Biochem Pharmacol. 1995 Nov 27;50(11):1775-82. [PubMed:8615855 ]
  8. Kitahara T, Koyama N, Matsuda J, Aoyama Y, Hirakata Y, Kamihira S, Kohno S, Nakashima M, Sasaki H: Antimicrobial activity of saturated fatty acids and fatty amines against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Sep;27(9):1321-6. [PubMed:15340213 ]
  9. Authors unspecified: NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Lauric Acid Diethanolamine Condensate (CAS NO. 120-40-1) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dermal Studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser. 1999 Jul;480:1-200. [PubMed:12571683 ]
  10. Amet Y, Berthou F, Menez JF: Simultaneous radiometric and fluorimetric detection of lauric acid metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography following esterification with 4-bromomethyl-6,7-dimethoxycoumarin in human and rat liver microsomes. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1996 Jun 7;681(2):233-9. [PubMed:8811432 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 11 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID:
P14555
Molecular weight:
16082.525
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine is more efficiently hydrolyzed than the other phospholipids examined.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2D
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNK4
Molecular weight:
16546.1
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The highest activity concerns the C6 to C10 chain length substrate. Converts the end product of pristanic acid beta oxidation, 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA, to its corresponding carnitine ester.
Gene Name:
CROT
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKG9
Molecular weight:
10213.63
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CPT2
Uniprot ID:
P23786
Molecular weight:
73776.335
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular weight:
39723.945
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in sphingolipid activator protein activity
Specific function:
Binds gangliosides and stimulates ganglioside GM2 degradation. It stimulates only the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2 by beta-hexosaminidase A. It extracts single GM2 molecules from membranes and presents them in soluble form to beta-hexosaminidase A for cleavage of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and conversion to GM3
Gene Name:
GM2A
Uniprot ID:
P17900
Molecular weight:
20838.1
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in ferric iron binding
Specific function:
The lactotransferrin transferrin-like domain 1 functions as a serine protease of the peptidase S60 family that cuts arginine rich regions. This function contributes to the antimicrobial activity
Gene Name:
LTF
Uniprot ID:
P02788
Molecular weight:
78181.2
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Cooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response
Gene Name:
TLR4
Uniprot ID:
O00206
Molecular weight:
95679.2
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the transport of acylcarnitines of different length across the mitochondrial inner membrane from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix for their oxidation by the mitochondrial fatty acid-oxidation pathway.
Gene Name:
SLC25A20
Uniprot ID:
O43772
Molecular weight:
32943.46
General function:
Involved in glycolipid transporter activity
Specific function:
Accelerates the intermembrane transfer of various glycolipids. Catalyzes the transfer of various glycosphingolipids between membranes but does not catalyze the transfer of phospholipids. May be involved in the intracellular translocation of glucosylceramides
Gene Name:
GLTP
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZD2
Molecular weight:
23849.6
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 11 proteins in total.