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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-10-09 21:01:19 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01035
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAngiotensin II
DescriptionAngiotensin II is a hormone that may act on the central nervous system to regulate renal sympathetic nerve activity, renal function, and, therefore, blood pressure. Angiotensin II is produced locally within the kidney and mediates tissue injury through a series of nonhemodynamic effects. angiotensin II is not only involved in the regulation of blood pressure, water and sodium homeostasis, and control of other neurohumoral systems, but also leads to excessive production of reactive oxygen species and to hypertrophy, proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular cells. Angiotensin II is one of the main factors involved in hypertension-induced tissue damage. This peptide regulates the inflammatory process. Angiotensin II activates circulating cells, and participates in their adhesion to the activated endothelium and subsequent transmigration through the synthesis of adhesion molecules, chemokines and cytokines. Among the intracellular signals involved in angiotensin II-induced inflammation, the production of reactive oxygen species and the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB are the best known. Classical, well-defined actions of Angiotensin II in the brain include the regulation of hormone formation and release, the control of the central and peripheral sympathoadrenal systems, and the regulation of water and sodium intake. As a consequence of changes in the hormone, sympathetic and electrolyte systems, feedback mechanisms in turn modulate the activity of the brain Angiotensin II systems. There are two Angiotensin II systems in the brain. The discovery of brain Angiotensin II receptors located in neurons inside the blood brain barrier confirmed the existence of an endogenous brain Angiotensin II system, responding to Angiotensin II generated in and/or transported into the brain. In addition, Angiotensin II receptors in circumventricular organs and in cerebrovascular endothelial cells respond to circulating Angiotensin II of peripheral origin. Thus, the brain responds to both circulating and tissue Angiotensin II, and the two systems are integrated. (PMID: 17147923 , 16672146 , 16601568 , 16481883 , 16075377 ).
5-Isoleucine-angiotensin IIChEBI
5-L-Isoleucineangiotensin IIChEBI
Angiotensin II (human)ChEBI
Angiotensin II (mouse)ChEBI
Human angiotensin IIChEBI
Isoleucine(5)-angiotensin IIChEBI
1-8-Angiotensin IHMDB
1-L-Aspasaginyl-5-L-valyl angiotensin octapeptideHMDB
Angiotensin 2HMDB
Ile(5)-angiotensin IIHMDB
II, 5-L-isoleucine angiotensinHMDB
Isoleucyl(5)-angiotensin IIHMDB
Angiotensin II, 5-L-isoleucineHMDB
Valyl(5)-angiotensin IIHMDB
5 L Isoleucine angiotensin IIHMDB
5-L-Isoleucine angiotensin IIHMDB
Angiotensin-(1-8) octapeptideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC50H71N13O12
Average Molecular Weight1046.1786
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1045.534514801
IUPAC Name(3S)-3-amino-3-{[(1S)-1-{[(1S)-1-{[(1S)-1-{[(1S,2S)-1-{[(2S)-1-[(2S)-2-{[(1S)-1-carboxy-2-phenylethyl]carbamoyl}pyrrolidin-1-yl]-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)-1-oxopropan-2-yl]carbamoyl}-2-methylbutyl]carbamoyl}-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}-2-methylpropyl]carbamoyl}-4-[(diaminomethylidene)amino]butyl]carbamoyl}propanoic acid
Traditional Name(3S)-3-amino-3-{[(1S)-1-{[(1S)-1-{[(1S)-1-{[(1S,2S)-1-{[(2S)-1-[(2S)-2-{[(1S)-1-carboxy-2-phenylethyl]carbamoyl}pyrrolidin-1-yl]-3-(3H-imidazol-4-yl)-1-oxopropan-2-yl]carbamoyl}-2-methylbutyl]carbamoyl}-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}-2-methylpropyl]carbamoyl}-4-[(diaminomethylidene)amino]butyl]carbamoyl}propanoic acid
CAS Registry Number11128-99-7
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as oligopeptides. These are organic compounds containing a sequence of between three and ten alpha-amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentOligopeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Physiological effect

Health effect:


Biological location:



Naturally occurring process:


Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.016 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.83ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count17ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count13ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area408.84 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count29ChemAxon
Refractivity269.81 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability107.02 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03mj-9313022101-6ac3b05e269115b1f5adSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9724022100-1dce7a6f99b2d561c0b3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01p6-9111000000-18aeed5d9ab235b9a89bSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0zi3-9000000005-bb2ec7da92fff6a158acSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9110001228-620241ce085107b44de3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9510024340-d26443900117133d12caSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0000086-0.000045 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot Available
      Not Available
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000006418 +/- 0.000002535 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000006418 +/- 0.000002535 uMAdult (>18 years old)Femalenormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0000012 +/- 0.0000002 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00169 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)FemaleRenal tubular acidosis, proximal, with ocular abnormalities and mental retardation details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0000574 +/- 0.0000030 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypertension details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000001922 +/- 0.000001741 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedneuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with anti-Anti-aquaporin-4(AQP4) antibody details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000003625 +/- 0.000001473 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedmultiple sclerosis details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000004907 +/- 0.000002171 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedinflammatory neuropathies details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000001922 +/- 0.000001741 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNeuromyelitis optica details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000005174 +/- 0.000002238 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Neurological diseases
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0000030000 +/- 0.000001597 uMAdult (>18 years old)Bothmultiple sclerosis details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
  1. Sim MK, Qui XS: Angiotensins in plasma of hypertensive rats and human. Regul Pept. 2003 Mar 28;111(1-3):179-82. [PubMed:12609766 ]
Renal tubular acidosis, proximal, with ocular abnormalities and mental retardation
  1. Igarashi T, Ishii T, Watanabe K, Hayakawa H, Horio K, Sone Y, Ohga K: Persistent isolated proximal renal tubular acidosis--a systemic disease with a distinct clinical entity. Pediatr Nephrol. 1994 Feb;8(1):70-1. [PubMed:8142230 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Matsushita T, Isobe N, Kawajiri M, Mogi M, Tsukuda K, Horiuchi M, Ohyagi Y, Kira J: CSF angiotensin II and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels in anti-aquaporin-4 autoimmunity. J Neurol Sci. 2010 Aug 15;295(1-2):41-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2010.05.014. Epub 2010 Jun 11. [PubMed:20541774 ]
  2. Kawajiri M, Mogi M, Osoegawa M, Matsuoka T, Tsukuda K, Kohara K, Horiuchi M, Miki T, Kira JI: Reduction of angiotensin II in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2008 May;14(4):557-60. doi: 10.1177/1352458507085760. [PubMed:18562510 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 145500 (Hypertension)
  • 604278 (Renal tubular acidosis, proximal, with ocular abnormalities and mental retardation)
  • 126200 (Multiple sclerosis)
DrugBank IDDB11842
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022383
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID150504
KEGG Compound IDC02135
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAngiotensin
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound172198
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID2719
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00000295
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Malpas SC, Ramchandra R, Guild SJ, McBryde F, Barrett CJ: Renal sympathetic nerve activity in the development of hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2006 Jun;8(3):242-8. [PubMed:17147923 ]
  2. Durvasula RV, Shankland SJ: The renin-angiotensin system in glomerular podocytes: mediator of glomerulosclerosis and link to hypertensive nephropathy. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2006 May;8(2):132-8. [PubMed:16672146 ]
  3. Wassmann S, Nickenig G: Pathophysiological regulation of the AT1-receptor and implications for vascular disease. J Hypertens Suppl. 2006 Mar;24(1):S15-21. [PubMed:16601568 ]
  4. Ruiz-Ortega M, Esteban V, Ruperez M, Sanchez-Lopez E, Rodriguez-Vita J, Carvajal G, Egido J: Renal and vascular hypertension-induced inflammation: role of angiotensin II. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2006 Mar;15(2):159-66. [PubMed:16481883 ]
  5. Saavedra JM: Brain angiotensin II: new developments, unanswered questions and therapeutic opportunities. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2005 Jun;25(3-4):485-512. [PubMed:16075377 ]


General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 6-phosphogluconate to ribulose 5-phosphate and CO(2), with concomitant reduction of NADP to NADPH (By similarity).
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Involved in ribose-5-phosphate isomerase activity
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Not Available
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General function:
Involved in metallopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. Also able to inactivate bradykinin, a potent vasodilator. Has also a glycosidase activity which releases GPI-anchored proteins from the membrane by cleaving the mannose linkage in the GPI moiety
Gene Name:
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General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for angiotensin II. Mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system
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General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
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Catalyzes the reversible epimerization of D-ribulose 5-phosphate to D-xylulose 5-phosphate.
Gene Name:
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General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
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General function:
Involved in metallopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator. Also able to hydrolyze apelin-13 and dynorphin-13 with high efficiency. May be an important regulator of heart function. In case of human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63 infections, serve as functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of both coronaviruses.
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Angiotensin II + Water → angiotensin-(1-7) + L-Phenylalaninedetails
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for angiotensin II. Cooperates with MTUS1 to inhibit ERK2 activation and cell proliferation
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Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Appears to be a negative regulator of type-1 angiotensin II receptor-mediated signaling by regulating receptor internalisation as well as mechanism of receptor desensitization such as phosphorylation. Induces also a decrease in cell proliferation and angiotensin II-stimulated transcriptional activity
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