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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:45:29 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01430
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Dopachrome
DescriptionDopachrome is a cyclization product of L-DOPA and is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of melanin. Dopaquinone has an ortho-quinone ring, which is known to be neurotoxic and highly reactive with many other compounds (PMID: 413870 ). Dopachrome spontaneously gives rise to 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) or it can be enzymatically metabolized by dopachrome tautomerase to give 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA). DHI and its oxidation products are also toxic to cells. Many Parkinson's patients are treated with L-DOPA. However, long-term treatment with L-DOPA may actually worsen symptoms or may result in neurotic and psychotic symptoms. These may be due to dopachrome and dopaquinone accumulating in the brain of L-DOPA treated patients (PMID: 19131041 , PMID: 12373519 ).
(2S)-2,3,5,6-Tetrahydro-5,6-dioxo-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acidHMDB
(2S)-5,6-Dioxo-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H7NO4
Average Molecular Weight193.158
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight193.037507709
IUPAC Name(2S)-5,6-dioxo-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional NameL-dopachrome
CAS Registry Number89762-39-0
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Indole or derivatives
  • Dihydroindole
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Amino acid
  • Ketone
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Enamine
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect


Biological location


Route of exposure


Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
Experimental Molecular Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
Water Solubility11.9 g/LALOGPS
logP10(0.22) g/LALOGPS
logP10(-0.087) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-1.3) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.67ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-8.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area83.47 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity47.88 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.48 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices


MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
L-DopachromeOC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2N13410.4Standard polar33892256
L-DopachromeOC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2N11679.3Standard non polar33892256
L-DopachromeOC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2N12079.1Semi standard non polar33892256


Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
L-Dopachrome,1TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2N12148.2Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Dopachrome,1TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)N1C2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2C[C@H]1C(=O)O2208.2Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Dopachrome,2TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2N1[Si](C)(C)C2204.9Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Dopachrome,2TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2N1[Si](C)(C)C1933.8Standard non polar33892256
L-Dopachrome,2TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2N1[Si](C)(C)C3214.0Standard polar33892256
L-Dopachrome,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2N12399.8Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Dopachrome,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)N1C2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2C[C@H]1C(=O)O2455.4Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Dopachrome,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2N1[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2665.8Semi standard non polar33892256
L-Dopachrome,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2N1[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2361.6Standard non polar33892256
L-Dopachrome,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2=CC(=O)C(=O)C=C2N1[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3349.0Standard polar33892256

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-002f-0900000000-7d241073b22105a8fd502019-02-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-0900000000-323f4bcd8528fb467c2b2019-02-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00ba-7900000000-13c63b10c546db28b4522019-02-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-0900000000-7278b78e7703333d10492019-02-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-006w-0900000000-37fa92b16a4a5557156c2019-02-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-006w-2900000000-a811e0992f3245b7b8552019-02-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-0900000000-becbc589150d5f7b85912021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0900000000-96e2a94dd742e6e1937c2021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-006w-1900000000-1956f467b1b38dab68422021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-0900000000-ae6d437a06113eb433382021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004m-0900000000-5329f1d5b80270050bbb2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - L-Dopachrome 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-006y-8900000000-bfc43ab0afc8b1b28daf2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022618
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4573572
KEGG Compound IDC01693
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDopachrome
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5459802
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15772
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Pak BJ, Li Q, Kerbel RS, Ben-David Y: TYRP2-mediated resistance to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) in human melanoma cells is independent of tyrosinase and TYRP1 expression and melanin content. Melanoma Res. 2000 Oct;10(5):499-505. [PubMed:11095412 ]
  2. Graham DG, Tiffany SM, Vogel FS: The toxicity of melanin precursors. J Invest Dermatol. 1978 Feb;70(2):113-6. [PubMed:413870 ]
  3. Hattoria N, Wanga M, Taka H, Fujimura T, Yoritaka A, Kubo S, Mochizuki H: Toxic effects of dopamine metabolism in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009 Jan;15 Suppl 1:S35-8. doi: 10.1016/S1353-8020(09)70010-0. [PubMed:19131041 ]
  4. Kostrzewa RM, Kostrzewa JP, Brus R: Neuroprotective and neurotoxic roles of levodopa (L-DOPA) in neurodegenerative disorders relating to Parkinson's disease. Amino Acids. 2002;23(1-3):57-63. doi: 10.1007/s00726-001-0110-x. [PubMed:12373519 ]


General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in cell surface binding
Specific function:
Pro-inflammatory cytokine. Involved in the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. The expression of MIF at sites of inflammation suggests a role as mediator in regulating the function of macrophages in host defense. Counteracts the anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids. Has phenylpyruvate tautomerase and dopachrome tautomerase activity (in vitro), but the physiological substrate is not known. It is not clear whether the tautomerase activity has any physiological relevance, and whether it is important for cytokine activity.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
L-Dopachrome → 5,6-Dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Involved in regulating eumelanin and phaeomelanin levels.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
L-Dopachrome → 5,6-Dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic aciddetails