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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-02-24 13:00:45 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:23:34 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01879
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAspirin
DescriptionAspirin is only found in individuals who have consumed this drug. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (acetosal) is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-inflammatory. It has also an anticoagulant effect and is used in long-term low-doses to prevent heart attacks and cancer. It was isolated from meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria, formerly classified as Spiraea ulmaria) by German researchers in 1839. While their extract was somewhat effective, it also caused digestive problems such as irritated stomach and diarrhoea, and even death when consumed in high doses. In 1853, a French chemist named Charles Frederic Gerhardt neutralized salicylic acid by buffering it with sodium (sodium salicylate) and acetyl chloride, creating acetosalicylic anhydride. Gerhardt's product worked, but he had no desire to market it and abandoned his discovery. In 1897, researcher Arthur Eichengrun and Felix Hoffmann, a research assistant at Friedrich Bayer & Co. in Germany, derivatized one of the hydroxyl functional groups in salicylic acid with an acetyl group (forming the acetyl ester), which greatly reduced the negative effects. This was the first synthetic drug, not a copy of something that existed in nature, and the start of the pharmaceuticals industry. The name 'aspirin' is composed of a- (from the acetyl group) -spir- (from the plant genus Spiraea) and -in (a common ending for drugs at the time). It has also been stated that the name originated by another means. As referring to AcetylSalicylic and 'pir' in reference to one of the scientists who was able to isolate it in crystalline form, Raffaele Piria. Finally 'in' due to the same reasons as stated above. Salicylic acid (which is a naturally occurring substance found in many plants) can be acetylated using acetic anhydride, yielding aspirin and acetic acid as a byproduct. It is a common experiment performed in organic chemistry labs, and generally tends to produce low yields due to the relative difficulty of its extraction from an aqueous state. The trick to getting the reaction to work is to acidify with phosphoric acid and heat the reagents under reflux with a boiling water bath for between 40 minutes and an hour. Aspirin acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5).
2-Acetoxybenzenecarboxylic acidChEBI
2-Acetoxybenzoic acidChEBI
Acide 2-(acetyloxy)benzoiqueChEBI
Acide acetylsalicyliqueChEBI
Acido acetilsalicilicoChEBI
Acidum acetylsalicylicumChEBI
O-Acetoxybenzoic acidChEBI
O-Acetylsalicylic acidChEBI
O-Carboxyphenyl acetateChEBI
Salicylic acid acetateChEBI
Acetylsalicylic acidKegg
O-Carboxyphenyl acetic acidGenerator
Salicylate acetateGenerator
Salicylic acid acetic acidGenerator
2-Carboxyphenyl acetateHMDB
Acetysalicylic acidHMDB
O-(Acetyloxy)benzoic acidHMDB
Solprin acidHMDB
Acid, acetylsalicylicHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H8O4
Average Molecular Weight180.1574
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.042258744
IUPAC Name2-(acetyloxy)benzoic acid
Traditional Nameaspirin
CAS Registry Number50-78-2
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acylsalicylic acids. These are o-acylated derivatives of salicylic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAcylsalicylic acids
Alternative Parents
  • Acylsalicylic acid
  • Phenol ester
  • Benzoic acid
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Benzoyl
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:



Route of exposure:

Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Indirect biological role:

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point135 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP1.19HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.46 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity44.45 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.1 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-2960000000-ffcb8d28ab7e460b0da8Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-006w-2910000000-910e8ce2493a05870b33Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dl-9400000000-64327d3bef0063cf4fe1Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-0900000000-113943b65024522c1712Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-1590000000-7890c99ca2b0e2c4ff19Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-2960000000-ffcb8d28ab7e460b0da8Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-006w-2910000000-910e8ce2493a05870b33Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-006w-2900000000-253eb678a85f77d4ba61Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000f-8900000000-760033c820b78b9452edSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9830000000-b3fcef47ab2b2ba0e7d1Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kr-6900000000-324f46e8def1652ed4bfSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-cdf64eaf75083da6f355Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-ee75806b6fb8a38fd697Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-00dl-9400000000-64327d3bef0063cf4fe1Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-113943b65024522c1712Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-000i-1900000000-bc50013edb10656e0aa4Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-000i-2900000000-8c55c1f8d7cb7f247a5dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-000l-9700000000-d475fd0478daf18a419aSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-3daaf3c8697e17e67869Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-ee876bcdd1a5c7c229a0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-cd4e1f8fe0a2bbc869f9Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-4dca49851b5b9fd03d1aSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-00kf-9000000000-4611655c6aff89d706ebSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-014l-9000000000-4d636e2d7318b857528dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-1256ca04e4244fbc4a64Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-2cae7e19320bfa1a03a0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-42f69c49b256900b7524Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-01ot-0900000000-4860d5cbeeb9c31311ecSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-006t-3900000000-cc185048e2a1bcc52124Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-96fcc874bfbf44a6ce6cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0019-1900000000-8ea2ab1846fc78de4262Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0fkc-9700000000-53fc1f45243a05bf1c17Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-002r-1900000000-421bc1739eeb6dced80aSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000l-4900000000-1c7dec3a4993a5b23cd8Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-81a6114ec99ac0f0f393Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00dl-6900000000-74f8a29aa18d0c3afe98Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Platelet
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified26.5 +/- 1.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.198 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00945
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB000894
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2157
KEGG Compound IDC01405
BioCyc IDCPD-524
BiGG ID45400
Wikipedia LinkAspirin
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound2244
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15365
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceChen, Hong; Long, Xiang; Huang, Siqing. Synthesis of aspirin with vitamin C as catalyst. Huaxue Shijie (2004), 45(12), 642-643.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Frelinger AL 3rd, Furman MI, Linden MD, Li Y, Fox ML, Barnard MR, Michelson AD: Residual arachidonic acid-induced platelet activation via an adenosine diphosphate-dependent but cyclooxygenase-1- and cyclooxygenase-2-independent pathway: a 700-patient study of aspirin resistance. Circulation. 2006 Jun 27;113(25):2888-96. Epub 2006 Jun 19. [PubMed:16785341 ]
  2. Eikelboom J, Feldman M, Mehta SR, Michelson AD, Oates JA, Topol E: Aspirin resistance and its implications in clinical practice. MedGenMed. 2005 Jul 11;7(3):76. [PubMed:16369302 ]
  3. Konrad CJ, Schuepfer GK, Gerber H, Rukwied R, Schmelz M, Schley M: Duration of effects of aspirin on platelet function in healthy volunteers: an analysis using the PFA-100. J Clin Anesth. 2006 Feb;18(1):12-7. [PubMed:16517326 ]
  4. Faraday N, Becker DM, Yanek LR, Herrera-Galeano JE, Segal JB, Moy TF, Bray PF, Becker LC: Relation between atherosclerosis risk factors and aspirin resistance in a primary prevention population. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Sep 15;98(6):774-9. Epub 2006 Jul 28. [PubMed:16950183 ]
  5. Lee SH, Rhim T, Choi YS, Min JW, Kim SH, Cho SY, Paik YK, Park CS: Complement C3a and C4a increased in plasma of patients with aspirin-induced asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Feb 15;173(4):370-8. Epub 2005 Nov 17. [PubMed:16293803 ]
  6. Perneby C, Wallen NH, Rooney C, Fitzgerald D, Hjemdahl P: Dose- and time-dependent antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Thromb Haemost. 2006 Apr;95(4):652-8. [PubMed:16601836 ]
  7. Maree AO, Curtin RJ, Chubb A, Dolan C, Cox D, O'Brien J, Crean P, Shields DC, Fitzgerald DJ: Cyclooxygenase-1 haplotype modulates platelet response to aspirin. J Thromb Haemost. 2005 Oct;3(10):2340-5. Epub 2005 Sep 9. [PubMed:16150050 ]
  8. Satoh K, Ozaki Y: [Attempts for aspirin monitoring with a new assay system, Ultegra Rapid Platelet Function Assay (RPFA), based on turbidimetric platelet agglutination of whole blood samples]. Rinsho Byori. 2006 Jun;54(6):576-82. [PubMed:16872006 ]
  9. Eikelboom JW, Hankey GJ, Thom J, Claxton A, Yi Q, Gilmore G, Staton J, Barden A, Norman PE: Enhanced antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in patients whose platelets are least inhibited by aspirin: a randomized crossover trial. J Thromb Haemost. 2005 Dec;3(12):2649-55. [PubMed:16359503 ]
  10. Cornelissen J, Kirtland S, Lim E, Goddard M, Bellm S, Sheridan K, Large S, Vuylsteke A: Biological efficacy of low against medium dose aspirin regimen after coronary surgery: analysis of platelet function. Thromb Haemost. 2006 Mar;95(3):476-82. [PubMed:16525576 ]
  11. Eliasson B, Cederholm J, Nilsson P, Gudbjornsdottir S: The gap between guidelines and reality: Type 2 diabetes in a National Diabetes Register 1996-2003. Diabet Med. 2005 Oct;22(10):1420-6. [PubMed:16176206 ]
  12. Zailaie MZ: Aspirin reduces serum anti-melanocyte antibodies and soluble interleukin-2 receptors in vitiligo patients. Saudi Med J. 2005 Jul;26(7):1085-91. [PubMed:16047057 ]
  13. Aktas B, Pozgajova M, Bergmeier W, Sunnarborg S, Offermanns S, Lee D, Wagner DD, Nieswandt B: Aspirin induces platelet receptor shedding via ADAM17 (TACE). J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 2;280(48):39716-22. Epub 2005 Sep 22. [PubMed:16179345 ]
  14. Maree AO, Curtin RJ, Dooley M, Conroy RM, Crean P, Cox D, Fitzgerald DJ: Platelet response to low-dose enteric-coated aspirin in patients with stable cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Oct 4;46(7):1258-63. [PubMed:16198840 ]
  15. Lev EI, Patel RT, Maresh KJ, Guthikonda S, Granada J, DeLao T, Bray PF, Kleiman NS: Aspirin and clopidogrel drug response in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the role of dual drug resistance. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Jan 3;47(1):27-33. Epub 2005 Dec 9. [PubMed:16386660 ]
  16. Sun W, Gerhardinger C, Dagher Z, Hoehn T, Lorenzi M: Aspirin at low-intermediate concentrations protects retinal vessels in experimental diabetic retinopathy through non-platelet-mediated effects. Diabetes. 2005 Dec;54(12):3418-26. [PubMed:16306357 ]
  17. Markuszewski L, Rosiak M, Golanski J, Rysz J, Spychalska M, Watala C: Reduced blood platelet sensitivity to aspirin in coronary artery disease: are dyslipidaemia and inflammatory states possible factors predisposing to sub-optimal platelet response to aspirin? Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 May;98(5):503-9. [PubMed:16635110 ]
  18. Tantry US, Bliden KP, Gurbel PA: Overestimation of platelet aspirin resistance detection by thrombelastograph platelet mapping and validation by conventional aggregometry using arachidonic acid stimulation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Nov 1;46(9):1705-9. Epub 2005 Oct 10. [PubMed:16256872 ]
  19. Hermida RC, Ayala DE, Calvo C, Lopez JE, Mojon A, Rodriguez M, Fernandez JR: Differing administration time-dependent effects of aspirin on blood pressure in dipper and non-dipper hypertensives. Hypertension. 2005 Oct;46(4):1060-8. Epub 2005 Aug 8. [PubMed:16087788 ]
  20. Savion N, Varon D: Impact--the cone and plate(let) analyzer: testing platelet function and anti-platelet drug response. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2006;35(1-2):83-8. [PubMed:16855351 ]
  21. Authors unspecified: Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet. 1988 Aug 13;2(8607):349-60. [PubMed:2899772 ]
  22. Sneader W: The discovery of aspirin: a reappraisal. BMJ. 2000 Dec 23-30;321(7276):1591-4. [PubMed:11124191 ]
  23. Macdonald S: Aspirin use to be banned in under 16 year olds. BMJ. 2002 Nov 2;325(7371):988. [PubMed:12411346 ]
  24. Aukerman G, Knutson D, Miser WF: Management of the acute migraine headache. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Dec 1;66(11):2123-30. [PubMed:12484694 ]
  25. Dorsch MP, Lee JS, Lynch DR, Dunn SP, Rodgers JE, Schwartz T, Colby E, Montague D, Smyth SS: Aspirin resistance in patients with stable coronary artery disease with and without a history of myocardial infarction. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 May;41(5):737-41. Epub 2007 Apr 24. [PubMed:17456544 ]


General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts progesterone to its inactive form, 20-alpha-dihydroxyprogesterone (20-alpha-OHP). In the liver and intestine, may have a role in the transport of bile. May have a role in monitoring the intrahepatic bile acid concentration. Has a low bile-binding ability. May play a role in myelin formation.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Dhagat U, Carbone V, Chung RP, Matsunaga T, Endo S, Hara A, El-Kabbani O: A salicylic acid-based analogue discovered from virtual screening as a potent inhibitor of human 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Med Chem. 2007 Nov;3(6):546-50. [PubMed:18045204 ]
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Mediates the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonate. May have a role as a major mediator of inflammation and/or a role for prostanoid signaling in activity-dependent plasticity.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Sliwowski Z, Kwiecien S, Drozdowicz D, Pawlik M, Mach K, Konturek SJ, Pawlik WW: Interaction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) with Helicobacter pylori in the stomach of humans and experimental animals. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;57 Suppl 3:67-79. [PubMed:17033106 ]
  2. Wang HJ, Liu XJ, Yang KX, Luo FM, Lou JY, Peng ZL: [Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in ovarian carcinoma cell]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006 Sep;37(5):757-60. [PubMed:17037745 ]
  3. Shen J, Gammon MD, Terry MB, Teitelbaum SL, Neugut AI, Santella RM: Genetic polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase-2 gene, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res. 2006;8(6):R71. [PubMed:17181859 ]
  4. Nakano M, Denda N, Matsumoto M, Kawamura M, Kawakubo Y, Hatanaka K, Hiramoto Y, Sato Y, Noshiro M, Harada Y: Interaction between cyclooxygenase (COX)-1- and COX-2-products modulates COX-2 expression in the late phase of acute inflammation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Mar 22;559(2-3):210-8. Epub 2006 Dec 16. [PubMed:17258197 ]
  5. Hall MN, Campos H, Li H, Sesso HD, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Ma J: Blood levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, aspirin, and the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Feb;16(2):314-21. [PubMed:17301265 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
May play an important role in regulating or promoting cell proliferation in some normal and neoplastically transformed cells.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Stevenson DD, Szczeklik A: Clinical and pathologic perspectives on aspirin sensitivity and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Oct;118(4):773-86; quiz 787-8. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [PubMed:17030227 ]
  2. Flipo RM: [Are the NSAIDs able to compromising the cardio-preventive efficacy of aspirin?]. Presse Med. 2006 Sep;35(9 Spec No 1):1S53-60. [PubMed:17078596 ]
  3. Schwartz KA: Aspirin resistance: a review of diagnostic methodology, mechanisms, and clinical utility. Adv Clin Chem. 2006;42:81-110. [PubMed:17131625 ]
  4. Birnbaum Y, Ye Y, Lin Y, Freeberg SY, Huang MH, Perez-Polo JR, Uretsky BF: Aspirin augments 15-epi-lipoxin A4 production by lipopolysaccharide, but blocks the pioglitazone and atorvastatin induction of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 in the rat heart. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2007 Feb;83(1-2):89-98. Epub 2006 Nov 7. [PubMed:17259075 ]
  5. Guthikonda S, Lev EI, Patel R, DeLao T, Bergeron AL, Dong JF, Kleiman NS: Reticulated platelets and uninhibited COX-1 and COX-2 decrease the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. J Thromb Haemost. 2007 Mar;5(3):490-6. [PubMed:17319904 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]


General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. [PubMed:12954186 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
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  1. Apiwattanakul N, Sekine T, Chairoungdua A, Kanai Y, Nakajima N, Sophasan S, Endou H: Transport properties of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by organic anion transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 May;55(5):847-54. [PubMed:10220563 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha- ketoglutarate
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  1. Sekine T, Cha SH, Tsuda M, Apiwattanakul N, Nakajima N, Kanai Y, Endou H: Identification of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 expressed predominantly in the liver. FEBS Lett. 1998 Jun 12;429(2):179-82. [PubMed:9650585 ]