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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-12 19:06:03 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:24:31 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0003337
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB03337
Metabolite Identification
Common NameOxidized glutathione
DescriptionOxidized glutathione, also known as glutathione disulfide or GSSG, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as oligopeptides. These are organic compounds containing a sequence of between three and ten alpha-amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) is a disulfide derived from two glutathione molecules. Oxidized glutathione is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Oxidized glutathione exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. methylarsonite and oxidized glutathione can be biosynthesized from methylarsonate and glutathione through the action of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase omega-1. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme glutathione reductase. In humans, oxidized glutathione is involved in arsenate detoxification. In living cells, glutathione disulfide is reduced into two molecules of glutathione with reducing equivalents from the coenzyme NADPH. Outside of the human body, oxidized glutathione has been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as rose hips, barley, quinoa, celery stalks, and purple mangosteens. This could make oxidized glutathione a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. A lower ratio may even be indicative of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. GSSG, along with glutathione and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), have been found to bind to the glutamate recognition site of the NMDA and AMPA receptors (via their γ-glutamyl moieties), and may be endogenous neuromodulators. At millimolar concentrations, they may also modulate the redox state of the NMDA receptor complex. GSH + R-S-S-R → GSSG + 2 RSHThe GSH:GSSG ratio is therefore an important bioindicator of cellular health, with a higher ratio signifying less oxidative stress in the organism.
Structure
Data?1582752271
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S)-2-Azaniumyl-4-{[(1R)-2-{[(2R)-2-[(4S)-4-azaniumyl-4-carboxylatobutanamido]-2-[(carboxylatomethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl]disulfanyl}-1-[(carboxylatomethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl]carbamoyl}butanoateHMDB
Glutathione disulfideHMDB
GSSGHMDB
L(-)-Glutathione(oxidized)HMDB
OxiglutationeHMDB
Chemical FormulaC20H32N6O12S2
Average Molecular Weight612.631
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight612.151961898
IUPAC Name2-amino-4-[(2-{[2-(4-amino-4-carboxybutanamido)-2-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl]disulfanyl}-1-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl)carbamoyl]butanoic acid
Traditional Nameoxiglutatione
CAS Registry Number27025-41-8
SMILES
NC(CCC(=O)NC(CSSCC(NC(=O)CCC(N)C(O)=O)C(=O)NCC(O)=O)C(=O)NCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C20H32N6O12S2/c21-9(19(35)36)1-3-13(27)25-11(17(33)23-5-15(29)30)7-39-40-8-12(18(34)24-6-16(31)32)26-14(28)4-2-10(22)20(37)38/h9-12H,1-8,21-22H2,(H,23,33)(H,24,34)(H,25,27)(H,26,28)(H,29,30)(H,31,32)(H,35,36)(H,37,38)
InChI KeyYPZRWBKMTBYPTK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as oligopeptides. These are organic compounds containing a sequence of between three and ten alpha-amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentOligopeptides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-oligopeptide
  • Gamma-glutamyl alpha peptide
  • Glutamine or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Tetracarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • Cysteine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • N-substituted-alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Fatty amide
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Carboxamide group
  • Amino acid
  • Dialkyldisulfide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Organic disulfide
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Primary amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.41 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.6ALOGPS
logP-10ChemAxon
logS-3.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.44ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.61ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count14ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count10ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area317.64 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count21ChemAxon
Refractivity136.65 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability58.43 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-c8147955c6b355f0fc5cSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-3e6195d480fbfe87b449Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-02t9-2121090000-ae2cd04146f2eea049a5Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01q3-2111039000-a2c6d786111b549344feSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativesplash10-0uki-0290000000-04456f914411a2ecbe4fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativesplash10-0a4i-0039210000-772eee67ad10a2d98fa7Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-08fr-1957008000-f8812fd72d475ecd2693Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-03di-0000109000-65d563bcfc551b4a7abdSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-03di-0003309000-7555effd0b74737b9d2fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-0259201000-2cd328143ce713c285d9Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-05d0-0493000000-93bd088394049a484b9dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-001r-0190000000-88b871b5a3f668f4b3a1Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positivesplash10-0a59-0019811000-b24651cf6fc55de750b8Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-053s-0495300000-69ab8e397b7a546ecd3fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-053r-0007920000-39da34018ceb610daa32Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-03di-0000009000-9cde769e8905f413f7e3Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-03di-0000009000-4e3c9569882ab5507bf2Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-02na-2011492000-e5bf21a4b84acc1cf18fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9002540000-c313b0aedf04e56ccf77Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9012110000-27ec93f3d13ce2136a4fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0147096000-d734e389344c1dc9b900Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0lxx-1597071000-aba0237f549185706415Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0007-9501140000-204a269186f92e44ac10Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Granulocytes
  • Liver
  • Lymphocyte
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Red Blood Cell
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified19.96 +/- 24.82 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.69 +/- 0.38 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.041 +/- 0.01 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.88 +/- 0.43 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0156 +/- 0.0359 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.207 +/- 0.264 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.216 +/- 0.250 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.249 +/- 0.397 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.349 +/- 0.436 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.350 +/- 1.05 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.350 +/- 1.05 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified27.94 +/- 23.19 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.98 +/- 0.41 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.065 +/- 0.01 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedMultiple sclerosis details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.044 +/- 0.01 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Multiple sclerosis
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.39 +/- 0.18 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.58 +/- 0.47 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MaleAttachment loss  details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MalePeriodontal Probing Depth details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.434 +/- 0.405 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTemporomandibular joint disorder (TMD)
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.441 +/- 0.403 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDental caries
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.91 +/- 4.90 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [PubMed:16139832 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Ballesteros A, Summerfelt A, Du X, Jiang P, Chiappelli J, Tagamets M, O'Donnell P, Kochunov P, Hong LE: Electrophysiological intermediate biomarkers for oxidative stress in schizophrenia. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013 Nov;124(11):2209-15. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2013.05.021. Epub 2013 Jun 30. [PubMed:23823132 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Ravagna A, Bella R, Butterfield DA, Calvani M, Pennisi G, Giuffrida Stella AM: Disruption of thiol homeostasis and nitrosative stress in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active multiple sclerosis: evidence for a protective role of acetylcarnitine. Neurochem Res. 2003 Sep;28(9):1321-8. [PubMed:12938853 ]
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Frontotemporal dementia
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Lewy body disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Temporomandibular joint disorder
  1. (). Sugimoto et al. (2013) Physiological and environmental parameters associated with mass spectrometry-based salivary metabolomic profiles. . .
Attachment loss
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Periodontal Probing Depth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023147
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID950
KEGG Compound IDC00127
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID33951
Wikipedia LinkGlutathione disulfide
METLIN ID6893
PubChem Compound975
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17858
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceSaito, Susumu; Nishijima, Kunihide; Kataoka, Katsuyuki; Aoyanagi, Yoshinori; Fukuda, Yoji; Ito, Homare. Manufacture of oxidized glutathione from reduced glutathione with ascorbic acid and ascorbate oxidase. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1995), 4 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Slivka A, Spina MB, Cohen G: Reduced and oxidized glutathione in human and monkey brain. Neurosci Lett. 1987 Feb 10;74(1):112-8. [PubMed:3561870 ]
  2. Aukrust P, Svardal AM, Muller F, Lunden B, Berge RK, Ueland PM, Froland SS: Increased levels of oxidized glutathione in CD4+ lymphocytes associated with disturbed intracellular redox balance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Blood. 1995 Jul 1;86(1):258-67. [PubMed:7795231 ]
  3. Sakhi AK, Russnes KM, Smeland S, Blomhoff R, Gundersen TE: Simultaneous quantification of reduced and oxidized glutathione in plasma using a two-dimensional chromatographic system with parallel porous graphitized carbon columns coupled with fluorescence and coulometric electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr A. 2006 Feb 3;1104(1-2):179-89. [PubMed:16376913 ]
  4. Glazyrin AL, Kolesnikov SI, Safronov AYu: Histochemical localization of oxidized glutathione-catalysing enzymes in human term placenta. Histochem J. 1993 Jan;25(1):45-50. [PubMed:8432663 ]
  5. Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Ravagna A, Bella R, Butterfield DA, Calvani M, Pennisi G, Giuffrida Stella AM: Disruption of thiol homeostasis and nitrosative stress in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active multiple sclerosis: evidence for a protective role of acetylcarnitine. Neurochem Res. 2003 Sep;28(9):1321-8. [PubMed:12938853 ]
  6. Carru C, Zinellu A, Pes GM, Marongiu G, Tadolini B, Deiana L: Ultrarapid capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of reduced and oxidized glutathione in red blood cells. Electrophoresis. 2002 Jun;23(11):1716-21. [PubMed:12179993 ]
  7. Tauler P, Sureda A, Cases N, Aguilo A, Rodriguez-Marroyo JA, Villa G, Tur JA, Pons A: Increased lymphocyte antioxidant defences in response to exhaustive exercise do not prevent oxidative damage. J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Oct;17(10):665-71. Epub 2005 Nov 28. [PubMed:16481153 ]
  8. Tohgi H, Abe T, Saheki M, Hamato F, Sasaki K, Takahashi S: Reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and alpha-tocopherol in the cerebrospinal fluid of parkinsonian patients: comparison between before and after L-dopa treatment. Neurosci Lett. 1995 Jan 16;184(1):21-4. [PubMed:7739798 ]
  9. Yoshida T: Determination of reduced and oxidized glutathione in erythrocytes by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1996 Apr 12;678(2):157-64. [PubMed:8738017 ]
  10. Sofic E, Lange KW, Jellinger K, Riederer P: Reduced and oxidized glutathione in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett. 1992 Aug 17;142(2):128-30. [PubMed:1454205 ]
  11. Kondo T, Ohtsuka Y, Shimada M, Kawakami Y, Hiyoshi Y, Tsuji Y, Fujii H, Miwa S: Erythrocyte-oxidized glutathione transport in pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency. Am J Hematol. 1987 Sep;26(1):37-45. [PubMed:2888306 ]
  12. Muda P, Kampus P, Zilmer M, Zilmer K, Kairane C, Ristimae T, Fischer K, Teesalu R: Homocysteine and red blood cell glutathione as indices for middle-aged untreated essential hypertension patients. J Hypertens. 2003 Dec;21(12):2329-33. [PubMed:14654754 ]
  13. Satoh T, Yoshioka Y: Contribution of reduced and oxidized glutathione to signals detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy as indicators of local brain redox state. Neurosci Res. 2006 May;55(1):34-9. Epub 2006 Feb 24. [PubMed:16503064 ]
  14. Srivastava SK, Beutler E: Oxidized glutathione levels in erythrocytes of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficient subjects. Lancet. 1968 Jul 6;2(7558):23-4. [PubMed:4172687 ]
  15. Board P, Nishida T, Gatmaitan Z, Che M, Arias IM: Erythrocyte membrane transport of glutathione conjugates and oxidized glutathione in the Dubin-Johnson syndrome and in rats with hereditary hyperbilirubinemia. Hepatology. 1992 Apr;15(4):722-5. [PubMed:1551648 ]
  16. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 14 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
GSR
Uniprot ID:
P00390
Molecular weight:
56256.565
Reactions
Glutathione + NADP → Oxidized glutathione + NADPHdetails
Glutathione + NAD → Oxidized glutathione + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glutathione + NADP → Oxidized glutathione + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in antioxidant activity
Specific function:
Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Can reduce H(2)O(2) and short chain organic, fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides. May play a role in the regulation of phospholipid turnover as well as in protection against oxidative injury.
Gene Name:
PRDX6
Uniprot ID:
P30041
Molecular weight:
25034.715
Reactions
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in proteolysis
Specific function:
Broad specificity aminopeptidase. Plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins by gastric and pancreatic proteases. May play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease. May be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides of diverse cell types, responsible for the processing of peptide hormones, such as angiotensin III and IV, neuropeptides, and chemokines. Found to cleave antigen peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of presenting cells and to degrade neurotransmitters at synaptic junctions. Is also implicated as a regulator of IL-8 bioavailability in the endometrium, and therefore may contribute to the regulation of angiogenesis. Is used as a marker for acute myeloid leukemia and plays a role in tumor invasion. In case of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) infection, serves as receptor for HCoV-229E spike glycoprotein. Mediates as well human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection.
Gene Name:
ANPEP
Uniprot ID:
P15144
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
It protects esophageal epithelia from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. It suppresses acidic bile acid-induced reactive oxigen species (ROS) and protects against oxidative DNA damage and double-strand breaks.
Gene Name:
GPX7
Uniprot ID:
Q96SL4
Molecular weight:
20995.88
Reactions
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 5(S)-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid → Oxidized glutathione + 5-HETE + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 15(S)-HPETE → Oxidized glutathione + 15-HETE + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione. May constitute a glutathione peroxidase-like protective system against peroxide damage in sperm membrane lipids.
Gene Name:
GPX5
Uniprot ID:
O75715
Molecular weight:
25202.14
Reactions
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 5(S)-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid → Oxidized glutathione + 5-HETE + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 15(S)-HPETE → Oxidized glutathione + 15-HETE + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities. Has S-(phenacyl)glutathione reductase activity. Has also glutathione S-transferase activity. Participates in the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic and reduces monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid.
Gene Name:
GSTO1
Uniprot ID:
P78417
Molecular weight:
27565.6
Reactions
Glutathione + Dehydroascorbic acid → Oxidized glutathione + Ascorbic aciddetails
Methylarsonate + Glutathione → Methylarsonite + Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPX6
Uniprot ID:
P59796
Molecular weight:
24970.46
Reactions
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 5(S)-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid → Oxidized glutathione + 5-HETE + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 15(S)-HPETE → Oxidized glutathione + 15-HETE + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name:
GPX1
Uniprot ID:
P07203
Molecular weight:
22087.94
Reactions
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 5(S)-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid → Oxidized glutathione + 5-HETE + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 15(S)-HPETE → Oxidized glutathione + 15-HETE + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Protects cells against membrane lipid peroxidation and cell death. Required for normal sperm development and male fertility. Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of ingested lipid hydroperoxides. Essential for embryonic development. Protects from radiation and oxidative damage (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GPX4
Uniprot ID:
P36969
Molecular weight:
25046.57
Reactions
Glutathione + a lipid hydroperoxide → Oxidized glutathione + lipid + Waterdetails
Lipid hydroperoxide + Glutathione → Lipid + Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione.
Gene Name:
GPX3
Uniprot ID:
P22352
Molecular weight:
25552.185
Reactions
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 5(S)-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid → Oxidized glutathione + 5-HETE + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 15(S)-HPETE → Oxidized glutathione + 15-HETE + Waterdetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 14 proteins in total.