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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-12 19:09:36 UTC
Update Date2020-04-08 18:56:11 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0003344
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0002165
  • HMDB02165
  • HMDB03344
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlycolaldehyde
DescriptionGlycolaldehyde (HOCH2-CH=O, IUPAC name 2-hydroxyethanal) is a type of diose (2-carbon monosaccharide). Glycolaldehyde is readily converted to acetyl coenzyme A. It has an aldehyde and a hydroxyl group. However, it is not actually a sugar, because there is only one hydroxyl group. Glycolaldehyde is formed from many sources, including the amino acid glycine and from purone catabolism. It can form by action of ketolase on fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in an alternate glycolysis pathway. This compound is transferred by thiamin pyrophosphate during the pentose phosphate shunt.
Structure
Data?1586372171
Synonyms
ValueSource
GLYCOALDEHYDEChEBI
Glycolic aldehydeChEBI
GlycollaldehydeChEBI
HydroxyacetaldehydeChEBI
Methylol formaldehydeChEBI
MonomethylolformaldehydeChEBI
2-HydroxyacetaldehydeHMDB
2-HydroxyethanalHMDB
2-OH-AcetaldehydeHMDB
2-OxoethanolHMDB
DioseHMDB
HydroxyethanalHMDB
MethylolformaldehydeHMDB
Chemical FormulaC2H4O2
Average Molecular Weight60.052
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight60.021129372
IUPAC Name2-hydroxyacetaldehyde
Traditional Nameglycolaldehyde
CAS Registry Number141-46-8
SMILES
OCC=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H4O2/c3-1-2-4/h1,4H,2H2
InChI KeyWGCNASOHLSPBMP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as short-chain aldehydes. These are an aldehyde with a chain length containing between 2 and 5 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbonyl compounds
Direct ParentShort-chain aldehydes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Short-chain aldehyde
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point97 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility725 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.99ALOGPS
logP-1.2ChemAxon
logS1.08ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.27ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity13.42 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability5.32 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-c2f1922c3cfc298b56e6Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0109-9200000000-6143e9afd72b9d7c5b6cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-666acd064bdf4b7e4e17Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-f129f99fe312906de2f3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9000000000-a4339f6764dcb3e35133Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-9aad7766f88c7ab6028bSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-8dee0ff3027177f894d7Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-f167702c9efe9cfcd0a8Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-86c6c734f49f41d961f7Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Neuron
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB030893
KNApSAcK IDC00007457
Chemspider ID736
KEGG Compound IDC00266
BioCyc IDGLYCOLALDEHYDE
BiGG ID34446
Wikipedia LinkGlycolaldehyde
METLIN ID3205
PubChem Compound756
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17071
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDGCALD
References
Synthesis ReferenceMajerski, Piotr A.; Piskorz, Jan K.; Radlein, Desmond St. A. G. Production of glycolaldehyde by hydrous thermolysis of sugars. PCT Int. Appl. (2002), 41 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Takeuchi M, Yamagishi S: TAGE (toxic AGEs) hypothesis in various chronic diseases. Med Hypotheses. 2004;63(3):449-52. [PubMed:15288366 ]
  2. Choei H, Sasaki N, Takeuchi M, Yoshida T, Ukai W, Yamagishi S, Kikuchi S, Saito T: Glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2004 Sep;108(3):189-93. Epub 2004 Jun 17. [PubMed:15221334 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of many hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs and xenobiotic compounds. Sulfonation increases the water solubility of most compounds, and therefore their renal excretion, but it can also result in bioactivation to form active metabolites. Sulfates hydroxysteroids like DHEA. Isoform 1 preferentially sulfonates cholesterol, and isoform 2 avidly sulfonates pregnenolone but not cholesterol.
Gene Name:
SULT2B1
Uniprot ID:
O00204
Molecular weight:
39598.595
Reactions
Glycolaldehyde → (2-oxoethoxy)sulfonic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
Glycolaldehyde → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(2-oxoethoxy)oxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails