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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Creation Date2010-05-13 16:18:02 UTC
Update Date2021-10-13 05:40:42 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0013593
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB13593
Metabolite Identification
Common Name1,4-Dithiothreitol
DescriptionDithiothreitol (DTT) is the common name for a small-molecule redox reagent known as Cleland's reagent. DTT's formula is C4H10O2S2 and the molecular structure of its reduced form is shown at the right; its oxidized form is a disulfide-bonded 6-membered ring (shown below). Its name derives from the four-carbon sugar, threose. DTT has an epimeric ('sister') compound, dithioerythritol. A common use of DTT is as a reducing or "deprotecting" agent for thiolated DNA. The terminal sulfur atoms of thiolated DNA have a tendency to form dimers in solution, especially in the presence of oxygen. Dimerization greatly lowers the efficiency of subsequent coupling reactions such as DNA immobilization on gold in biosensors. Typically DTT is mixed with a DNA solution and allowed to react, and then is removed by filtration (for the solid catalyst) or by chromatography (for the liquid form). The DTT removal procedure is often called "desalting.". DTT is frequently used to reduce the disulfide bonds of proteins and, more generally, to prevent intramolecular and intermolecular disulfide bonds from forming between cysteine residues of proteins. However, even DTT cannot reduce buried (solvent-inaccessible) disulfide bonds, so reduction of disulfide bonds is sometimes carried out under denaturing conditions (e.g., at high temperatures, or in the presence of a strong denaturant such as 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride, 8 M urea, or 1% sodium dodecylsulfate). Conversely, the solvent exposure of different disulfide bonds can be assayed by their rate of reduction in the presence of DTT. DTT can also be used as an oxidizing agent. Its principal advantage is that effectively no mixed-disulfide species are populated, in contrast to other agents such as glutathione. In very rare cases, a DTT adduct may be formed, i.e., the two sulfur atoms of DTT may form disulfide bonds to different sulfur atoms; in such cases, DTT cannot cyclize since it has no remaining free thiols. Due to air oxidation, DTT is a relatively unstable compound whose useful life can be extended by refrigeration and handling in an inert atmosphere. Since protonated sulfurs have lowered nucleophilicities, DTT becomes less potent as the pH lowers. Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine HCl (TCEP hydrochloride) is an alternative which is more stable and works even at low pH.
Structure
Data?1582753136
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2R,3R)-1,4-Dimercaptobutane-2,3-diolChEBI
2,3-DIHYDROXY-1,4-dithiobutaneChEBI
DL-Threo-1,4-dimercapto-2,3-butanediolChEBI
L-DithiothreitolChEBI
L-DTTChEBI
L-Threo-1,4-dimercapto-2,3-butanediolChEBI
Threo-1,4-dimercapto-2,3-butanediolChEBI
DithiothreitolMeSH, HMDB
SputolysinMeSH, HMDB
Clelands reagentMeSH, HMDB
Cleland reagentMeSH, HMDB
Cleland's reagentMeSH, HMDB
Reagent, clelandMeSH, HMDB
Reagent, cleland'sMeSH, HMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H10O2S2
Average Molecular Weight154.251
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight154.012220944
IUPAC Name(2R,3R)-1,4-disulfanylbutane-2,3-diol
Traditional NameL-dithiothreitol
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
O[C@@H](CS)[C@@H](O)CS
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H10O2S2/c5-3(1-7)4(6)2-8/h3-8H,1-2H2/t3-,4-/m0/s1
InChI KeyVHJLVAABSRFDPM-IMJSIDKUSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,2-diols. These are polyols containing an alcohol group at two adjacent positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassAlcohols and polyols
Direct Parent1,2-diols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-diol
  • Alkylthiol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Process

Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point42.50 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Boiling Point364.50 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility185600 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
LogP0.070 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.14 g/LALOGPS
logP10(0.18) g/LALOGPS
logP10(-0.28) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-1.5) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity38.84 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.68 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+130.41831661259
DarkChem[M-H]-125.31431661259

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
1,4-DithiothreitolO[C@@H](CS)[C@@H](O)CS2478.5Standard polar33892256
1,4-DithiothreitolO[C@@H](CS)[C@@H](O)CS1366.2Standard non polar33892256
1,4-DithiothreitolO[C@@H](CS)[C@@H](O)CS1453.9Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
1,4-Dithiothreitol,1TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS)[C@@H](O)CS1475.0Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,1TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)SC[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)CS1562.1Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,2TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS)[C@H](CS)O[Si](C)(C)C1642.1Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,2TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)CS1649.6Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,2TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS)[C@@H](O)CS[Si](C)(C)C1665.8Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,2TMS,isomer #4C[Si](C)(C)SC[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)CS[Si](C)(C)C1713.1Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS)[C@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1702.7Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS)[C@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1737.3Standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS)[C@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1805.8Standard polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,3TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)CS[Si](C)(C)C1784.3Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,3TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)CS[Si](C)(C)C1791.2Standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,3TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)CS[Si](C)(C)C1922.2Standard polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,4TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1795.7Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,4TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1858.3Standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,4TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1729.0Standard polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS)[C@@H](O)CS1743.4Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)SC[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)CS1811.7Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS)[C@H](CS)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2095.1Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,2TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)CS2130.8Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,2TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS)[C@@H](O)CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2148.5Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,2TBDMS,isomer #4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)SC[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2157.2Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS)[C@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2433.8Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS)[C@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2419.3Standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS)[C@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2141.4Standard polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,3TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2483.7Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,3TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2501.3Standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,3TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2265.2Standard polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,4TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2752.2Semi standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,4TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2652.5Standard non polar33892256
1,4-Dithiothreitol,4TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](CS[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2257.8Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-00yr-4980000000-015b0bd9159f844857332014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00yr-4980000000-015b0bd9159f844857332017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-9100000000-3ef0f66522eb59a011a52017-08-28Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0100-9440000000-305930033ccddc530afe2017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-2357c61b9304010e6df22017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-d38dd45fa0d60f965b3d2017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-3900000000-09794da11f5c44ce035f2017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-3900000000-373bc79ecd0741d231d92017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0zgi-6900000000-658ff776b350aa570be32017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-05gr-9200000000-1a1762c6117c49a4dfcb2017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0f79-1900000000-49e7f21ce9c082bd39262021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0fbi-9500000000-e8b7aed28d73a82bc0b82021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4j-9000000000-3ca3306ac8e2b74bba702021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-77ff0ef3bcfd35568f802021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-9000000000-8bdea10a6a6a9b0bf2672021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 1,4-Dithiothreitol 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-053r-9000000000-6273ca380ee1abfa6fb42021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB04447
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB029593
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID388336
KEGG Compound IDC00265
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDithiothreitol
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound439196
PDB IDDTT
ChEBI ID42106
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDrw1684651
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-sensi
Specific function:
Involved in vitamin K metabolism. Catalytic subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex which reduces inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Gene Name:
VKORC1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BQB6
Molecular weight:
18234.3
Reactions
Phylloquinol + Oxidized dithiothreitol → Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide + 1,4-Dithiothreitoldetails
Vitamin K1 + Oxidized dithiothreitol + Water → Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide + 1,4-Dithiothreitoldetails
Vitamin K + Oxidized dithiothreitol + Water → Vitamin K epoxide + 1,4-Dithiothreitoldetails
2,3-Epoxymenaquinone + 1,4-Dithiothreitol → Menatetrenone + Oxidized dithiothreitol + Waterdetails