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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:40:59 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15105
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDactinomycin
DescriptionDactinomycin, also known as cosmegen or actd, belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as other non-metal sulfides. These are inorganic compounds containing a sulfur atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen belongs to the class of other non-metals. Dactinomycin is a drug. Dactinomycin is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). It is believed to work by blocking the creation of RNA.Dactinomycin was approved for medical use in the United States in 1964. It is produced from bacteria Streptomyces parvullus. Actinomycin D was the first antibiotic shown to have anti-cancer activity. This includes Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, trophoblastic neoplasm, testicular cancer, and certain types of ovarian cancer. Common side effects include bone marrow suppression, vomiting, mouth ulcers, hair loss, liver problems, infections, and muscle pains. Because actinomycin can bind DNA duplexes, it can also interfere with DNA replication, although other chemicals such as hydroxyurea are better suited for use in the laboratory as inhibitors of DNA synthesis.
Actinomycin C1ChEBI
Actinomycin IVChEBI
Actinomycin DHMDB
Lyovac, cosmegenHMDB
MSD Brand OF dactinomycinHMDB
Lemery brand OF dactinomycinHMDB
Merck brand OF dactinomycinHMDB
Merck sharp and dohme brand OF dactinomycinHMDB
Cosmegen lyovacHMDB
Merck frosst brand OF dactinomycinHMDB
Lyovac cosmegenMeSH
Chemical FormulaC62H86N12O16
Average Molecular Weight1255.417
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1254.628474764
IUPAC NameN1,N9-bis[(6S,9R,10S,13R,18aS)-2,5,9-trimethyl-1,4,7,11,14-pentaoxo-6,13-bis(propan-2-yl)-hexadecahydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-i]1-oxa-4,7,10,13-tetraazacyclohexadecan-10-yl]-2-amino-4,6-dimethyl-3-oxo-3H-phenoxazine-1,9-dicarboxamide
Traditional Nameactinomycin D
CAS Registry Number50-76-0
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as other non-metal sulfides. These are inorganic compounds containing a sulfur atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen belongs to the class of other non-metals.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassOther non-metal organides
Sub ClassOther non-metal sulfides
Direct ParentOther non-metal sulfides
Alternative Parents
  • Other non-metal sulfide
  • Inorganic selenide
  • Inorganic sulfide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available

Biological location:


Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point241.5 - 243 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.02 g/LNot Available
LogP1.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.02 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.52ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.13ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count16ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area355.54 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity326.17 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability129.2 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings7ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0abi-0090100500-826678da9161b81bf64aSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0601-0040100900-2fb41c6f4520301f96e9Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-0191201100-81336cea4ce1fbd12e3dSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0190000200-b4e0df12772f1fab0f06Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0012-0250100900-d303295b1a0e65afe4f7Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001r-0090400800-1fff0856bff453aa4a0eSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00970 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00970 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00970
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID10482167
KEGG Compound IDC06770
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDactinomycin
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound457193
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID27666
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Sobell HM: Actinomycin and DNA transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Aug;82(16):5328-31. [PubMed:2410919 ]
  2. Khatua S, Nair CN, Ghosh K: Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia following dactinomycin therapy in a child with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: the unresolved issues. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004 Nov;26(11):777-9. [PubMed:15543019 ]
  3. Turan T, Karacay O, Tulunay G, Boran N, Koc S, Bozok S, Kose MF: Results with EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine) chemotherapy in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1432-8. [PubMed:16803542 ]
  4. Abd El-Aal HH, Habib EE, Mishrif MM: Wilms' tumor: the experience of the pediatric unit of Kasr El-Aini center of radiation oncology and nuclear medicine (NEMROCK). J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2005 Dec;17(4):308-14. [PubMed:17102824 ]


General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3
Gene Name:
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Molecular weight:
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o- glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency
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  1. Breuninger LM, Paul S, Gaughan K, Miki T, Chan A, Aaronson SA, Kruh GD: Expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein in NIH/3T3 cells confers multidrug resistance associated with increased drug efflux and altered intracellular drug distribution. Cancer Res. 1995 Nov 15;55(22):5342-7. [PubMed:7585598 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May participate directly in the active transport of drugs into subcellular organelles or influence drug distribution indirectly. Transports glutathione conjugates as leukotriene-c4 (LTC4) and N-ethylmaleimide S-glutathione (NEM-GS)
Gene Name:
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  1. Belinsky MG, Chen ZS, Shchaveleva I, Zeng H, Kruh GD: Characterization of the drug resistance and transport properties of multidrug resistance protein 6 (MRP6, ABCC6). Cancer Res. 2002 Nov 1;62(21):6172-7. [PubMed:12414644 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
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  1. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674 ]
  2. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103 ]
  3. Ambudkar SV, Lelong IH, Zhang J, Cardarelli CO, Gottesman MM, Pastan I: Partial purification and reconstitution of the human multidrug-resistance pump: characterization of the drug-stimulatable ATP hydrolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Sep 15;89(18):8472-6. [PubMed:1356264 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from the brain. May be involved in brain-to-blood efflux. Appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of several cancer cell lines. When overexpressed, the transfected cells become resistant to mitoxantrone, daunorubicin and doxorubicin, display diminished intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin, and manifest an ATP- dependent increase in the efflux of rhodamine 123
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  1. Wang X, Furukawa T, Nitanda T, Okamoto M, Sugimoto Y, Akiyama S, Baba M: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) induces cellular resistance to HIV-1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;63(1):65-72. [PubMed:12488537 ]