Hmdb loader
Survey
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version5.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:51:56 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015329
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15329
Metabolite Identification
Common NameZopiclone
DescriptionZopiclone is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a novel hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. Its mechanism of action is based on modulating benzodiazepine receptors. In addition to zopiclone's benzodiazepine pharmacological properties it also has some barbiturate like properties. Zopiclone exerts its action by binding on the benzodiazepine receptor complex and modulation of the GABABZ receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex. Both zopiclone and benzodiazepines act indiscriminately at the benzodiazepine binding site on α1, α2, α3 and α5 GABAA containing receptors as full agonists causing an enhancement of the inhibitory actions of GABA to produce the therapeutic (hypnotic and anxiolytic) and adverse effects of zopiclone.
Structure
Data?1582753284
Synonyms
ValueSource
(+-)-ZopicloneChEBI
6-(5-Chloro-2-pyridinyl)-7-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl 4-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylateChEBI
ZopiclonaChEBI
ZopiclonumChEBI
AmobanKegg
6-(5-Chloro-2-pyridinyl)-7-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl 4-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylic acidGenerator
LimovanHMDB
Nu-zopicloneHMDB
ZilezeHMDB
ZimovaneHMDB
ZopicalmHMDB
Zopiclon alHMDB
Zopiclon stadaHMDB
Zopiclon tadHMDB
Zopiclon-tevaHMDB
Zopiclon-neuraxpharmHMDB
ZorcloneHMDB
Ratio-zopicloneHMDB
SiatenHMDB
SomnosanHMDB
XimovanHMDB
Zopiclon azuHMDB
Zopiclon abzHMDB
ZopicloduraHMDB
RhovaneHMDB
ZimocloneHMDB
Zopiclon betaHMDB
ZopitanHMDB
6-(5-Chloro-2-pyridyl)-6,7-dihydro- 7-oxo-5H-pyrrolo(3,4-b)pyrazin-5-yl 4-methyl-1- piperazinecarboxylateHMDB
ImovaneHMDB
OptidormHMDB
ZopHMDB
Zopi-purenHMDB
ZopicalmaHMDB
Zopiclon-ratiopharmHMDB
Zopiclon von CTHMDB
Chemical FormulaC17H17ClN6O3
Average Molecular Weight388.808
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight388.105066147
IUPAC Name6-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-7-oxo-5H,6H,7H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl 4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate
Traditional Namezopiclone
CAS Registry Number43200-80-2
SMILES
CN1CCN(CC1)C(=O)OC1N(C(=O)C2=NC=CN=C12)C1=NC=C(Cl)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C17H17ClN6O3/c1-22-6-8-23(9-7-22)17(26)27-16-14-13(19-4-5-20-14)15(25)24(16)12-3-2-11(18)10-21-12/h2-5,10,16H,6-9H2,1H3
InChI KeyGBBSUAFBMRNDJC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thienothiazines. These are heterocyclic compounds containing a thiophene ring fused to a thiazine. Thiophene is 5-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom. Thiazine is a 6-membered ring consisting of four carbon, one nitrogen and one sulfur atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassThienothiazines
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentThienothiazines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Thienothiazine
  • 2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophene
  • Aralkylamine
  • Ortho-thiazine
  • Organosulfonic acid amide
  • Organic sulfonic acid or derivatives
  • Organosulfonic acid or derivatives
  • Sulfonyl
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Thiophene
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Ether
  • Secondary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effectNot Available
Disposition
ProcessNot Available
Role
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point178 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.88 g/LNot Available
LogP0.8Not Available
Experimental Chromatographic Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

Adduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
[M+H]+CBM188.530932474
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.88 g/LALOGPS
logP0.97ALOGPS
logP0.52ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.04ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.86ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area91.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity95.89 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability38.22 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DeepCCS[M-2H]-219.50430932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+194.73330932474
AllCCS[M+H]+187.132859911
AllCCS[M+H-H2O]+184.332859911
AllCCS[M+NH4]+189.632859911
AllCCS[M+Na]+190.332859911
AllCCS[M-H]-186.132859911
AllCCS[M+Na-2H]-186.032859911
AllCCS[M+HCOO]-185.932859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
ZopicloneCN1CCN(CC1)C(=O)OC1N(C(=O)C2=NC=CN=C12)C1=NC=C(Cl)C=C13800.4Standard polar33892256
ZopicloneCN1CCN(CC1)C(=O)OC1N(C(=O)C2=NC=CN=C12)C1=NC=C(Cl)C=C13236.6Standard non polar33892256
ZopicloneCN1CCN(CC1)C(=O)OC1N(C(=O)C2=NC=CN=C12)C1=NC=C(Cl)C=C13226.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Zopiclone GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05bb-9212000000-b3e4c2874ff86d2544e12017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Zopiclone GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0007-6950000000-c1583a92e3cbc50661862014-09-20Not AvailableView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone LC-ESI-QTOF , positive-QTOFsplash10-00kb-0090000000-9d80e08080f4068482212017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone LC-ESI-QFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-0092000000-977d45f9a516242be80f2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone LC-ESI-QFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-0090000000-397a508c11f66c1613272017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone LC-ESI-QFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-014j-0090000000-abc6a676659114a83d082017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone LC-ESI-QFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-0790000000-74d7c73e854e617004332017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone LC-ESI-QFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-00lr-0920000000-2c17f6282d1031cb4d502017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone LC-ESI-QFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-0900000000-c0f92aba9374337ff7372017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone LC-ESI-QFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-003r-5900000000-46755df8b5cfb7f46bf92017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone LC-ESI-QFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-9300000000-091d5434bc674d5bf9a42017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone LC-ESI-QFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-9000000000-87365fa01fb0854897ca2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 45V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014j-0090000000-10c3fa2d80a8abbefd552021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 30V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-0090000000-1867bce03fb895923ceb2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 60V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-0790000000-462830e768acf8704d812021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 75V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00lr-0920000000-6c00112af341c07aba1b2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 15V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-0092000000-b9948d590c2d56a477e82021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone -1V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00kb-0090000000-66a3d681838796c245d32021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0009000000-58198ad5b8e6fb5075fc2016-06-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-5917000000-fed7a3a68ceccd2f26be2016-06-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0ac0-9000000000-ef1623aed48bd5073d7b2016-06-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0309000000-e2a958d8569e44198c062016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-1901000000-d74484c0d625330ab7cd2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-056r-9510000000-15dec99e5a95379575582016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0009000000-8fbf9af9d2708ba6bc8c2021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000j-0049000000-0d0bcaed2a13fc359e642021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Zopiclone 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-03e9-2695000000-54c5cabfed200237305e2021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01198 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01198 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01198
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5533
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkZopiclone
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5735
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID32315
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Dundar Y, Dodd S, Strobl J, Boland A, Dickson R, Walley T: Comparative efficacy of newer hypnotic drugs for the short-term management of insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004 Jul;19(5):305-22. [PubMed:15252823 ]
  2. Liu HJ, Sato K, Shih HC, Shibuya T, Kawamoto H, Kitagawa H: Pharmacologic studies of the central action of zopiclone: effects on locomotor activity and brain monoamines in rats. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1985 Mar;23(3):121-8. [PubMed:2581904 ]
  3. Sato K, Hong YL, Yang MS, Shibuya T, Kawamoto H, Kitagawa H: Pharmacologic studies of central actions of zopiclone: influence on brain monoamines in rats under stressful condition. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1985 Apr;23(4):204-10. [PubMed:2860074 ]
  4. Julou L, Bardone MC, Blanchard JC, Garret C, Stutzmann JM: Pharmacological studies on zopiclone. Pharmacology. 1983;27 Suppl 2:46-58. [PubMed:6142468 ]
  5. Blanchard JC, Julou L: Suriclone: a new cyclopyrrolone derivative recognizing receptors labeled by benzodiazepines in rat hippocampus and cerebellum. J Neurochem. 1983 Mar;40(3):601-7. [PubMed:6298365 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
May play an important role in regulating or promoting cell proliferation in some normal and neoplastically transformed cells.
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular weight:
68685.82
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Lalovic B, Phillips B, Risler LL, Howald W, Shen DD: Quantitative contribution of CYP2D6 and CYP3A to oxycodone metabolism in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Apr;32(4):447-54. [PubMed:15039299 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Lalovic B, Phillips B, Risler LL, Howald W, Shen DD: Quantitative contribution of CYP2D6 and CYP3A to oxycodone metabolism in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Apr;32(4):447-54. [PubMed:15039299 ]
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Responsible for the manifestation of peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites and is most likely to comprise binding domains for benzodiazepines and isoquinoline carboxamides. May play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme. Plays a role in the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes in steroidogenic cells
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular weight:
18778.7
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular weight:
51801.4
References
  1. Nutt DJ, Stahl SM: Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1601-12. doi: 10.1177/0269881109106927. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19942638 ]
  2. Hanson SM, Morlock EV, Satyshur KA, Czajkowski C: Structural requirements for eszopiclone and zolpidem binding to the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor are different. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7243-52. doi: 10.1021/jm800889m. [PubMed:18973287 ]
  3. Sanger DJ: The pharmacology and mechanisms of action of new generation, non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agents. CNS Drugs. 2004;18 Suppl 1:9-15; discussion 41, 43-5. [PubMed:15291009 ]
  4. Skerritt JH, Johnston GA: Enhancement of GABA binding by benzodiazepines and related anxiolytics. Eur J Pharmacol. 1983 May 6;89(3-4):193-8. [PubMed:6135616 ]
  5. Ramerstorfer J, Furtmuller R, Vogel E, Huck S, Sieghart W: The point mutation gamma 2F77I changes the potency and efficacy of benzodiazepine site ligands in different GABAA receptor subtypes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 25;636(1-3):18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.03.015. Epub 2010 Mar 19. [PubMed:20303942 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular weight:
51325.9
References
  1. Nutt DJ, Stahl SM: Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1601-12. doi: 10.1177/0269881109106927. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19942638 ]
  2. Hanson SM, Morlock EV, Satyshur KA, Czajkowski C: Structural requirements for eszopiclone and zolpidem binding to the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor are different. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7243-52. doi: 10.1021/jm800889m. [PubMed:18973287 ]
  3. Ramerstorfer J, Furtmuller R, Vogel E, Huck S, Sieghart W: The point mutation gamma 2F77I changes the potency and efficacy of benzodiazepine site ligands in different GABAA receptor subtypes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 25;636(1-3):18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.03.015. Epub 2010 Mar 19. [PubMed:20303942 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular weight:
55164.1
References
  1. Nutt DJ, Stahl SM: Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1601-12. doi: 10.1177/0269881109106927. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19942638 ]
  2. Hanson SM, Morlock EV, Satyshur KA, Czajkowski C: Structural requirements for eszopiclone and zolpidem binding to the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor are different. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7243-52. doi: 10.1021/jm800889m. [PubMed:18973287 ]
  3. Ramerstorfer J, Furtmuller R, Vogel E, Huck S, Sieghart W: The point mutation gamma 2F77I changes the potency and efficacy of benzodiazepine site ligands in different GABAA receptor subtypes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 25;636(1-3):18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.03.015. Epub 2010 Mar 19. [PubMed:20303942 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular weight:
52145.6
References
  1. Nutt DJ, Stahl SM: Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1601-12. doi: 10.1177/0269881109106927. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19942638 ]
  2. Hanson SM, Morlock EV, Satyshur KA, Czajkowski C: Structural requirements for eszopiclone and zolpidem binding to the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptor are different. J Med Chem. 2008 Nov 27;51(22):7243-52. doi: 10.1021/jm800889m. [PubMed:18973287 ]
  3. Skerritt JH, Johnston GA: Enhancement of GABA binding by benzodiazepines and related anxiolytics. Eur J Pharmacol. 1983 May 6;89(3-4):193-8. [PubMed:6135616 ]
  4. Ramerstorfer J, Furtmuller R, Vogel E, Huck S, Sieghart W: The point mutation gamma 2F77I changes the potency and efficacy of benzodiazepine site ligands in different GABAA receptor subtypes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 25;636(1-3):18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.03.015. Epub 2010 Mar 19. [PubMed:20303942 ]