You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:48:16 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000014
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00014
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDeoxycytidine
DescriptionDeoxycytidine, also known as dC, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides. Pyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides are compounds consisting of a pyrimidine linked to a ribose which lacks a hydroxyl group at position 2. Deoxycytidine is also classified as a deoxyribonucleoside, a component of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Deoxycytidine is similar to the ribonucleoside cytidine, but with one hydroxyl group removed from the 2' position. Deoxycytidine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to plants to humans. Degradation of DNA through apoptosis or cell death produces deoxycytidine. Within humans, deoxycytidine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, deoxycytidine can be biosynthesized from dCMP through the action of the enzyme cytosolic purine 5'-nucleotidase. In addition, deoxycytidine can be converted into dCMP; which is mediated by the enzyme uridine-cytidine kinase-like 1. Deoxycytidine can be phosphorylated at the C-5 position by the enzyme deoxycytidine kinase to produce deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP), and to a lesser extent, deoxycytidine diphosphate (dCDP), and deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP). Deoxycytidine can also be phosphorylated by thymidine kinase 2 (TK2). Deoxycytidine can potentially be used for the treatment of the metabolic disorder known as thymidine kinase 2 deficiency (TK2 deficiency). TK2 deficiency has three disease subtypes: i) infantile-onset myopathy with rapid progression to early death ii) childhood-onset myopathy, which resembles spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type III, begins between ages 1 and 12 years with progression to loss of ambulation within few years and iii) late-onset myopathy starting at age 12 year or later with moderate to severe myopathy manifesting as either isolated chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) or a generalized myopathy with CPEO plus facial and limb weakness, gradual progression, and, in some cases, respiratory failure and loss of ability to walk in adulthood (PMID: 28318037 ). In mouse models of TK2, dC was shown to delay disease onset, prolong life span and restore mtDNA copy number as well as respiratory chain enzyme activities (PMID: 28318037 ).
Structure
Data?1582752107
Synonyms
ValueSource
4-Amino-1-[(2R,4S,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]pyrimidin-2(1H)-oneChEBI
dCChEBI
DCYDChEBI
2'-DeoxycytidineKegg
1-(2-Deoxy-b-D-ribofuranosyl)cytosineHMDB
1-(2-Deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-cytosineHMDB
1-(2-Deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)cytosineHMDB
1-(2-Deoxy-beta-delta-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-cytosineHMDB
1-(2-Deoxy-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl)cytosineHMDB
2-Deoxy-cytidineHMDB
4-Amino-1-(2-deoxy-b-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneHMDB
4-Amino-1-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneHMDB
4-Amino-1-(2-deoxy-beta-delta-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneHMDB
Cytosine deoxyribonucleosideHMDB
Cytosine deoxyribosideHMDB
Deoxy-cytidineHMDB
Deoxyribose cytidineHMDB
DesoxycytidineHMDB
Deoxyribonucleoside, cytosineHMDB
Deoxyriboside, cytosineHMDB
DeoxycytidineChEBI
Chemical FormulaC9H13N3O4
Average Molecular Weight227.2172
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight227.090605919
IUPAC Name4-amino-1-[(2R,4S,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one
Traditional Name2'-deoxycytidine
CAS Registry Number951-77-9
SMILES
NC1=NC(=O)N(C=C1)[C@H]1C[C@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H13N3O4/c10-7-1-2-12(9(15)11-7)8-3-5(14)6(4-13)16-8/h1-2,5-6,8,13-14H,3-4H2,(H2,10,11,15)/t5-,6+,8+/m0/s1
InChI KeyCKTSBUTUHBMZGZ-SHYZEUOFSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides. Pyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides are compounds consisting of a pyrimidine linked to a ribose which lacks a hydroxyl group at position 2.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPyrimidine nucleosides
Sub ClassPyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides
Direct ParentPyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Hydropyrimidine
  • Pyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point207 - 210 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility870 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-1.77HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility15.9 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.9ALOGPS
logP-1.9ChemAxon
logS-1.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area108.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity53.03 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability21.65 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Collision Cross Sections

NameAdductTypeData SourceValueReference
DeepCCS[M-H]-ExperimentalMetCCS_train_neg146.84230932474
AllCCS[M-H]-ExperimentalNot Available148.6http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000095
DarkChem[M+H]+PredictedNot Available149.43131661259
DarkChem[M-H]-PredictedNot Available148.18231661259
AllCCS[M+H]+PredictedNot Available151.03232859911
AllCCS[M-H]-PredictedNot Available150.1832859911

Retention Indices

Underivatized

Not Available

Derivatized

DerivativeValueReference
Deoxycytidine,1TMS,#12307.797https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,1TMS,#22304.5786https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,1TMS,#32373.7026https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,2TMS,#12266.8008https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,2TMS,#22356.2632https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,2TMS,#32348.1382https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,2TMS,#42328.1748https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,1TBDMS,#12565.2705https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,1TBDMS,#22558.6035https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,1TBDMS,#32636.9604https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,2TBDMS,#12745.3853https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,2TBDMS,#22813.4849https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,2TBDMS,#32804.792https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Deoxycytidine,2TBDMS,#42776.3352https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Spectra

GC-MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9510000000-43f83823bd8a636695142016-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0gb9-4912000000-fef878d78b0000e850bb2017-10-06View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9510000000-0d341d698aaedbfca4062021-09-05View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-8900000000-5b42adf83e422cffefb62021-09-18View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9800000000-24fa3ff739ff064312ab2021-09-18View Spectrum

LC-MS/MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-0900000000-27431bdd2327f6f2b8862012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-1900000000-0ea85f3f3940843e385b2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03dl-9500000000-569e473eba0b700f5b6e2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-5c8c0fde4f2163fbc3352012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9420000000-28279714b575d59761ce2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0006-9200000000-df7c76b755c9fac5267b2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-acbd1d7557be6d716a192012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-00kf-9100000000-056ef35d3aa743e0d5cf2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0910000000-52e9d173bb94576f7d9e2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-e06e5a9f19c4162aa24f2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-551d8ee9679ef3fb65fa2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-3900000000-4c62633283ba566dbee02012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-bac3656523b118a2c1bc2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , Positivesplash10-03dj-6900000000-dfa8435d3dd8b89816212012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-01t9-0690000000-72302b09c51553dde1692012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-03fr-0930000000-f5c80400a73719f6211f2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0006-9130000000-c7f95a478d22e3cc83f42012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-af75883dba546c82e7bc2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9420000000-562a675c6278a4ae2bc42017-09-14View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-e9d4ffd1148d792f51322016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-4900000000-b2a5f419f882d45f6ae72016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-8900000000-0bbcfd7be44c4f38c4fc2016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-1890000000-395ff33971fbc8368eca2016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0016-4910000000-2dc8aa3aad2b1c83316f2016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9200000000-cc82bf3d145faf0a6ca32016-09-12View Spectrum

NMR

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, predicted)2012-12-04View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.2 (0.0-0.5) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.65 +/- 0.27 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedChildren (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUnclassified IBD details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Crohn's disease
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB02594
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB021871
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID13117
KEGG Compound IDC00881
BioCyc IDDEOXYCYTIDINE
BiGG ID36280
Wikipedia LinkDeoxycytidine
METLIN ID3367
PubChem Compound13711
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15698
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDDCYT
MarkerDB IDNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference Fox, Jack F.; Yung, Naishun; Wempen, Iris; Hoffer, Max. Pyrimidine nucleosides. XII. Direct synthesis of 2'-deoxycytidine and its a-anomer. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1961), 83 4066-50.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. van den Bosch J, Lubbert M, Verhoef G, Wijermans PW: The effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Decitabine) on the platelet count in patients with intermediate and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Res. 2004 Aug;28(8):785-90. [PubMed:15203276 ]
  2. Lee SH, Jung BH, Kim SY, Chung BC: A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of nucleosides in human urine using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with direct urine injection. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(9):973-7. [PubMed:15116424 ]
  3. Wepierre J, Marty JP, Chanal JL, Sincholle D: Percutaneous absorption of 5-iodo-2' deoxycytidine in the hairless rat and in man. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1984 Jan-Mar;9(1):79-83. [PubMed:6714272 ]
  4. Coral S, Sigalotti L, Altomonte M, Engelsberg A, Colizzi F, Cattarossi I, Maraskovsky E, Jager E, Seliger B, Maio M: 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-induced expression of functional cancer testis antigens in human renal cell carcinoma: immunotherapeutic implications. Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Aug;8(8):2690-5. [PubMed:12171902 ]
  5. Olivares J, Verdys M: Isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic method for studying the metabolism of blood plasma pyrimidine nucleosides and bases: concentration and radioactivity measurements. J Chromatogr. 1988 Dec 29;434(1):111-21. [PubMed:3243806 ]
  6. Lopez-Gomez C, Levy RJ, Sanchez-Quintero MJ, Juanola-Falgarona M, Barca E, Garcia-Diaz B, Tadesse S, Garone C, Hirano M: Deoxycytidine and Deoxythymidine Treatment for Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency. Ann Neurol. 2017 May;81(5):641-652. doi: 10.1002/ana.24922. Epub 2017 May 4. [PubMed:28318037 ]
  7. (). Maley, F. et al., J. Biol. Chem., 1958, 233, 1538-1543, (5-diphosphate). .
  8. (). Charubala, R. et al., Synthesis, 1984, 965-968, (5'-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl) 4N-benzoyl). .
  9. (). Schaller, H. et al., J.A.C.S., 1963, 85, 3821-3827, (5'-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl) 4N-benzoyl). .
  10. (). Benz, E. et al., J.O.C., 1965, 30, 3067-3071, (4N-benzoyl, 5'-tosyl, 3',4N-dibenzoyl, 4N,5'-dibenzoyl, 5'-tosyl 4N-benzoyl, 5'-trityl 3',4N-dibenzoyl). .
  11. (). Hruska, F.E. et al., Can. J. Chem., 1974, 52, 497-508, (pmr). .
  12. (). Jones, A.J. et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1970, 65, 27-30, CA, 72, 96682j, (cmr). .
  13. (). Miles, H.T., J.A.C.S., 1963, 85, 1007-1008, (ir, pmr). .
  14. (). Young, D.W. et al., Acta Cryst. B, 1975, 31, 961-965, (cryst struct). .
  15. (). Michelson, A.M. et al., J.C.S., 1954, 34-40, (phosphates, 3',4N-di-Ac, 5'-trityl, 5'-trityl 3',4N-di-Ac). .
  16. (). Lewis, R.J., Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 8th edn., Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992, DAQ850. .
  17. (). Aldrich Library of 13C and 1H FT NMR Spectra, 1992, 3, 396A, 396C, (nmr). .
  18. (). Stawinski, J. et al., Chem. Comm., 1976, 243-244, (3',4N,5'-tribenzoyl). .
  19. (). Ulbricht TL. Nucleosides. 3. Synthesis of 1-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine, and comments on the N.m.r. spectra of cytosine nucleosides. J Chem Soc Perkin 1. 1965 Sep:6134-5.. .
  20. (). Wang Z, Prudhomme DR, Buck JR, Park M, Rizzo CJ. Stereocontrolled syntheses of deoxyribonucleosides via photoinduced electron-transfer deoxygenation of benzoyl-protected ribo- and arabinonucleosides. J Org Chem. 2000 Sep 22;65(19):5969-85. . .
  21. (). Saneyoshi M, Tohyama J, Nakayama C, Takiya S, Iwabuchi M. Inhibitory effects of 3'deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate and 3'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate on DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I and II purified from Dictyostelium discoideum cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Jul 10;9(13):3129-38.. .
  22. (). FOX JJ, WEMPEN I. Pyrimidine nucleosides. Adv Carbohydr Chem. 1959;14:283-380.. .
  23. (). Raffaele Saladino, Enrico Mincione, Claudia Crestini, Maurizio Mezzetti. Transformations of thiopyrimidine and thiopurine nucleosides following oxidation with dimethyldioxirane. Tetrahedron, 1996, 52, 6759-6780. .
  24. (). Aldrich Library of FT-IR Spectra, 1st edn., 1985, 2, 832B, 838D, 839C, (ir). .
  25. (). Yang, J.T. et al., CA, 1966, 65, 12454, (ord). .

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 12 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides.
Gene Name:
NT5E
Uniprot ID:
P21589
Molecular weight:
57948.125
Reactions
dCMP + Water → Deoxycytidine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides. Helps to regulate adenosine levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NT5C1B
Uniprot ID:
Q96P26
Molecular weight:
68803.055
Reactions
dCMP + Water → Deoxycytidine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides and has a broad substrate specificity. Helps to regulate adenosine levels in heart during ischemia and hypoxia.
Gene Name:
NT5C1A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXI3
Molecular weight:
41020.145
Reactions
dCMP + Water → Deoxycytidine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides, with a preference for dUMP and dTMP, intermediate activity towards dGMP, and low activity towards dCMP and dAMP.
Gene Name:
NT5C
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCD5
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
dCMP + Water → Deoxycytidine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Required for the phosphorylation of the deoxyribonucleosides deoxycytidine (dC), deoxyguanosine (dG) and deoxyadenosine (dA). Has broad substrate specificity, and does not display selectivity based on the chirality of the substrate. It is also an essential enzyme for the phosphorylation of numerous nucleoside analogs widely employed as antiviral and chemotherapeutic agents.
Gene Name:
DCK
Uniprot ID:
P27707
Molecular weight:
30518.315
Reactions
NTP + Deoxycytidine → NDP + dCMPdetails
Adenosine triphosphate + Deoxycytidine → ADP + dCMPdetails
References
  1. Giovannetti E, Mey V, Loni L, Nannizzi S, Barsanti G, Savarino G, Ricciardi S, Del Tacca M, Danesi R: Cytotoxic activity of gemcitabine and correlation with expression profile of drug-related genes in human lymphoid cells. Pharmacol Res. 2007 Apr;55(4):343-9. Epub 2007 Jan 16. [PubMed:17296311 ]
General function:
Involved in phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates specifically the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides, and so protects mitochondrial DNA replication from excess dTTP. Has only marginal activity towards dIMP and dGMP.
Gene Name:
NT5M
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPB1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
dCMP + Water → Deoxycytidine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AID
Uniprot ID:
Q546Y9
Molecular weight:
23953.3
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Can act both as nucleotidase and as phosphotransferase.
Gene Name:
NT5C3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H0P0
Molecular weight:
33914.91
Reactions
dCMP + Water → Deoxycytidine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in 5'-nucleotidase activity
Specific function:
May have a critical role in the maintenance of a constant composition of intracellular purine/pyrimidine nucleotides in cooperation with other nucleotidases. Preferentially hydrolyzes inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and other purine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
NT5C2
Uniprot ID:
P49902
Molecular weight:
64969.2
Reactions
dCMP + Water → Deoxycytidine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
This enzyme scavenge exogenous and endogenous cytidine and 2'-deoxycytidine for UMP synthesis.
Gene Name:
CDA
Uniprot ID:
P32320
Molecular weight:
16184.545
Reactions
Deoxycytidine + Water → Deoxyuridine + Ammoniadetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 12 proteins in total.