Hmdb loader
Survey with prize
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:48:59 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000067
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0000507
  • HMDB00067
  • HMDB00507
  • HMDB0062453
  • HMDB62453
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCholesterol
DescriptionCholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. The name originates from the Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), and the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol. This is because researchers first identified cholesterol in solid form in gallstones in 1784. In the body, cholesterol can exist in either the free form or as an ester with a single fatty acid (of 10-20 carbons in length) covalently attached to the hydroxyl group at position 3 of the cholesterol ring. Due to the mechanism of synthesis, plasma cholesterol esters tend to contain relatively high proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Most of the cholesterol consumed as a dietary lipid exists as cholesterol esters. Cholesterol esters have a lower solubility in water than cholesterol and are more hydrophobic. They are hydrolyzed by the pancreatic enzyme cholesterol esterase to produce cholesterol and free fatty acids. Cholesterol has vital structural roles in membranes and in lipid metabolism in general. It is a biosynthetic precursor of bile acids, vitamin D, and steroid hormones (glucocorticoids, estrogens, progesterones, androgens and aldosterone). In addition, it contributes to the development and functioning of the central nervous system, and it has major functions in signal transduction and sperm development. Cholesterol is a ubiquitous component of all animal tissues where much of it is located in the membranes, although it is not evenly distributed. The highest proportion of unesterified cholesterol is in the plasma membrane (roughly 30-50% of the lipid in the membrane or 60-80% of the cholesterol in the cell), while mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum have very low cholesterol contents. Cholesterol is also enriched in early and recycling endosomes, but not in late endosomes. The brain contains more cholesterol than any other organ where it comprises roughly a quarter of the total free cholesterol in the human body. Of all the organic constituents of blood, only glucose is present in a higher molar concentration than cholesterol. Cholesterol esters appear to be the preferred form for transport in plasma and as a biologically inert storage (de-toxified) form. They do not contribute to membranes but are packed into intracellular lipid particles. Cholesterol molecules (i.e. cholesterol esters) are transported throughout the body via lipoprotein particles. The largest lipoproteins, which primarily transport fats from the intestinal mucosa to the liver, are called chylomicrons. They carry mostly triglyceride fats and cholesterol that are from food, especially internal cholesterol secreted by the liver into the bile. In the liver, chylomicron particles give up triglycerides and some cholesterol. They are then converted into low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, which carry triglycerides and cholesterol on to other body cells. In healthy individuals, the LDL particles are large and relatively few in number. In contrast, large numbers of small LDL particles are strongly associated with promoting atheromatous disease within the arteries. (Lack of information on LDL particle number and size is one of the major problems of conventional lipid tests.). In conditions with elevated concentrations of oxidized LDL particles, especially small LDL particles, cholesterol promotes atheroma plaque deposits in the walls of arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis, which is a major contributor to coronary heart disease and other forms of cardiovascular disease. There is a worldwide trend to believe that lower total cholesterol levels tend to correlate with lower atherosclerosis event rates (though some studies refute this idea). As a result, cholesterol has become a very large focus for the scientific community trying to determine the proper amount of cholesterol needed in a healthy diet. However, the primary association of atherosclerosis with cholesterol has always been specifically with cholesterol transport patterns, not total cholesterol per se. For example, total cholesterol can be low, yet made up primarily of small LDL and small HDL particles and atheroma growth rates are high. In contrast, however, if LDL particle number is low (mostly large particles) and a large percentage of the HDL particles are large (HDL is actively reverse transporting cholesterol), then atheroma growth rates are usually low, even negative, for any given total cholesterol concentration. These effects are further complicated by the relative concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in the endothelium since ADMA down-regulates production of nitric oxide, a relaxant of the endothelium. Thus, high levels of ADMA, associated with highly oxidized levels of LDL, pose a heightened risk factor for vascular disease. Chronically high levels of cholesterol are associated with at least five inborn errors of metabolism, including cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, cholesteryl ester storage disease, congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, hypercholesterolemia, and Zellweger syndrome. In chronically high levels, cholesterol can function as an atherogen (causes atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease). Specifically, chronically high levels (from diet or from genetic predisposition or from diseases such as hyperlipidemia) of cholesterol and cholesterol esters lead to an excess of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. In healthy individuals, the LDL particles are large and relatively few in number. In contrast, large numbers of small LDL particles are strongly associated with promoting atheromatous disease within the arteries. In conditions with elevated concentrations of oxidized LDL particles, especially small LDL particles, cholesterol promotes atheroma plaque deposits in the walls of arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis, which is a major contributor to coronary heart disease and other forms of cardiovascular disease. Resistin, a protein secreted by fat tissue, has been shown to increase the production of LDL in human liver cells and also degrades LDL receptors in the liver. As a result, the liver is less able to clear cholesterol from the bloodstream. Resistin accelerates the accumulation of LDL in arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease. Cholesterol is considered to be practically insoluble (in water) and basic.
Structure
Data?1601240101
Synonyms
ValueSource
(3beta,14beta,17alpha)-Cholest-5-en-3-olChEBI
Cholest-5-en-3beta-olChEBI
CholesterinChEBI
(3b,14b,17a)-Cholest-5-en-3-olGenerator
(3Β,14β,17α)-cholest-5-en-3-olGenerator
Cholest-5-en-3b-olGenerator
Cholest-5-en-3β-olGenerator
(3Β)-cholest-5-en-3-olHMDB
(3beta)-Cholest-5-en-3-olHMDB
3Β-hydroxycholest-5-eneHMDB
3beta-Hydroxycholest-5-eneHMDB
5:6-Cholesten-3β-olHMDB
5:6-Cholesten-3beta-olHMDB
(-)-CholesterolHMDB
CholesterineHMDB
Cholesterol base HHMDB
Cholesteryl alcoholHMDB
CholestrinHMDB
CholestrolHMDB
CordulanHMDB
DastarHMDB
DusolineHMDB
DusoranHMDB
DytholHMDB
Fancol CHHMDB
HydrocerinHMDB
KathroHMDB
LanolHMDB
Super hartolanHMDB
TegolanHMDB
CholesterolHMDB
delta5-Cholesten-3beta-olPhytoBank
Δ5-Cholesten-3β-olPhytoBank
Chemical FormulaC27H46O
Average Molecular Weight386.6535
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight386.354866094
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,5S,10S,11S,14R,15R)-2,15-dimethyl-14-[(2R)-6-methylheptan-2-yl]tetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-7-en-5-ol
Traditional Name(1S,2R,5S,10S,11S,14R,15R)-2,15-dimethyl-14-[(2R)-6-methylheptan-2-yl]tetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-7-en-5-ol
CAS Registry Number57-88-5
SMILES
[H][C@@]1(CC[C@@]2([H])[C@]3([H])CC=C4C[C@@H](O)CC[C@]4(C)[C@@]3([H])CC[C@]12C)[C@H](C)CCCC(C)C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C27H46O/c1-18(2)7-6-8-19(3)23-11-12-24-22-10-9-20-17-21(28)13-15-26(20,4)25(22)14-16-27(23,24)5/h9,18-19,21-25,28H,6-8,10-17H2,1-5H3/t19-,21+,22+,23-,24+,25+,26+,27-/m1/s1
InChI KeyHVYWMOMLDIMFJA-DPAQBDIFSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cholesterols and derivatives. Cholesterols and derivatives are compounds containing a 3-hydroxylated cholestane core.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassCholestane steroids
Direct ParentCholesterols and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cholesterol-skeleton
  • Cholesterol
  • 3-beta-hydroxysteroid
  • 3-beta-hydroxy-delta-5-steroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 3-hydroxysteroid
  • 3-hydroxy-delta-5-steroid
  • Delta-5-steroid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effectNot Available
Disposition
Biological locationSource
Process
Naturally occurring process
Role