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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-11-09 23:12:07 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00119
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlyoxylic acid
DescriptionGlyoxylic acid or oxoacetic acid is an organic compound that is both an aldehyde and a carboxylic acid. Glyoxylic acid is a liquid with a melting point of -93°C and a boiling point of 111°C. It is an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle, which enables certain organisms to convert fatty acids into carbohydrates. The conjugate base of glyoxylic acid is known as glyoxylate (PMID: 16396466 ). In humans, glyoxylate is produced via two pathways: (1) through the oxidation of glycolate in peroxisomes and (2) through the catabolism of hydroxyproline in mitochondria. In the peroxisomes, glyoxylate is converted into glycine by glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT1) or into oxalate by glycolate oxidase. In the mitochondria, glyoxylate is converted into glycine by mitochondrial glyoxylate aminotransferase AGT2 or into glycolate by glycolate reductase. A small amount of glyoxylate is converted into oxalate by cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase. Glyoxylic acid is found to be associated with primary hyperoxaluria I, which is an inborn error of metabolism. Under certain circumstances, glyoxylate can be a nephrotoxin and a metabotoxin. A nephrotoxin is a compound that causes damage to the kidney and kidney tissues. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. High levels of glyoxylate are involved in the development of hyperoxaluria, a key cause of nephrolithiasis (commonly known as kidney stones). Glyoxylate is both a substrate and inductor of sulfate anion transporter-1 (SAT-1), a gene responsible for oxalate transportation, allowing it to increase SAT-1 mRNA expression, and as a result oxalate efflux from the cell. The increased oxalate release allows the buildup of calcium oxalate in the urine, and thus the eventual formation of kidney stones. As an aldehyde, glyoxylate is also highly reactive and will modify proteins to form advanced glycation products (AGEs).
alpha-Ketoacetic acidChEBI
Formylformic acidChEBI
Oxalaldehydic acidChEBI
Oxoethanoic acidChEBI
a-Ketoacetic acidGenerator
Α-ketoacetic acidGenerator
Glyoxalic acidGenerator
Oxoacetic acidHMDB
Glyoxylic acid, 2-(14)C-labeledHMDB
Glyoxylic acid, sodium saltHMDB
Glyoxylic acid, sodium salt, 2-(14)C-labeledHMDB
Glyoxylic acid, 14c2-labeledHMDB
Glyoxylic acid, calcium saltHMDB
Glyoxylic acid, sodium salt, 14C-labeledHMDB
Chemical FormulaC2H2O3
Average Molecular Weight74.0355
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight74.00039393
IUPAC Name2-oxoacetic acid
Traditional Nameglyoxylic acid
CAS Registry Number298-12-4
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids are compounds containing a carboxylic acid group with the formula -C(=O)OH.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic acids
Direct ParentCarboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Short-chain aldehyde
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aldehyde
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:


Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Indirect biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point-93 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility224 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity13.5 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability5.35 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-03di-3900000000-16bc69e0e9d51e54854eSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-3900000000-16bc69e0e9d51e54854eSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0096-9000000000-042540a05be250278f8bSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00fr-9200000000-c60b627ed670285ec37fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-72c34bc34b8c3341442bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-920a0dc738957201d4baSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-857c7f2d72c3d4c10dbfSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9b5825d5d9d8b094fefaSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-de556f03ea428deff5e2Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00dl-9000000000-74b253632894213d473cSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9b5825d5d9d8b094fefaSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-de556f03ea428deff5e2Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00dl-9000000000-74b253632894213d473cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-a8cc2c89793394fdf9e4Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-d20183b08984d4766e8aSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ea9968e3933fd734506cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-cef8efc477a2500a7eadSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-3817c0865df629803538Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-bb935f857fb5fd08c7e3Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004l-9000000000-a04bafbf8e0b990094a3Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.05 (0.25–12.78) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
UrineDetected and Quantified3.28 (2.0-5.32) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
UrineDetected and Quantified1.467 (0.467-3.933) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
UrineDetected and Quantified1.27 (0.46-3.26) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.88 (0.63-3.22) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified76 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedTransurethral prostatectomy syndrome details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleInterstitial cystitis details
UrineDetected and Quantified74 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Primary hyperoxaluria I
UrineDetected and Quantified36-270 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothPrimary hyperoxaluria I details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Transurethral resection of the prostate
  1. Perier C, Mahul P, Molliex S, Auboyer C, Frey J: Progressive changes in glycine and glycine derivatives in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid after transurethral prostatic resection. Clin Chem. 1990 Dec;36(12):2152-3. [PubMed:2253377 ]
Bladder infections
  1. Braundmeier-Fleming A, Russell NT, Yang W, Nas MY, Yaggie RE, Berry M, Bachrach L, Flury SC, Marko DS, Bushell CB, Welge ME, White BA, Schaeffer AJ, Klumpp DJ: Stool-based biomarkers of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Sci Rep. 2016 May 18;6:26083. doi: 10.1038/srep26083. [PubMed:27188581 ]
Primary hyperoxaluria I
  1. Holmgren G, Hornstrom T, Johansson S, Samuelson G: Primary hyperoxaluria (glycolic acid variant): a clinical and genetical investigation of eight cases. Ups J Med Sci. 1978;83(1):65-70. [PubMed:705974 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB04343
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB007244
KNApSAcK IDC00001186
Chemspider ID740
KEGG Compound IDC00048
BiGG ID33659
Wikipedia LinkGlyoxylic_acid
PubChem Compound760
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16891
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00000055
Synthesis ReferenceJie, Yuanping; Song, Zhen. Method for preparing glyoxylic acid. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2007), 5pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Naghizadeh F, Barlow D, King J: The reduction of oxo-acids by human tissue extracts. Clin Biochem. 1976 Apr;9(2):65-6. [PubMed:1261003 ]
  2. Borondy PE, Michniewicz BM: Metabolic disposition of isoxicam in man, monkey, dog, and rat. Drug Metab Dispos. 1984 Jul-Aug;12(4):444-51. [PubMed:6148211 ]
  3. Arvesen A, Maehlen J, Rosen L, Aas P: Myointimal hyperplasia and sympathetic reinnervation following local cold injury and rapid rewarming in the rabbit central ear artery. Vasa. 2001 Jul;30(3):176-83. [PubMed:11582947 ]
  4. Motomiya Y, Oyama N, Iwamoto H, Uchimura T, Maruyama I: N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine in blood from maintenance hemodialysis patients may contribute to dialysis-related amyloidosis. Kidney Int. 1998 Oct;54(4):1357-66. [PubMed:9767556 ]
  5. Holmes E, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy characterisation of the complex metabolic pattern of urine from patients with inborn errors of metabolism: 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and maple syrup urine disease. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1997 Jul;15(11):1647-59. [PubMed:9260660 ]
  6. Mentasti E, Savigliano M, Marangella M, Petrarulo M, Linari F: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of glyoxylic acid and other carbonyl compounds in urine. J Chromatogr. 1987 Jul 3;417(2):253-60. [PubMed:3654878 ]
  7. Bruzzese FJ, Dix JA, Rava RP, Cerny LC: Resonance Raman spectroscopy of chemically modified hemoglobins. Biomater Artif Cells Artif Organs. 1990;18(2):143-56. [PubMed:2369642 ]
  8. Lee SH, Kim SO, Chung BC: Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of urinary oxoacids using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)oxime-trimethylsilyl ester derivatization and cation-exchange chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998 Nov 20;719(1-2):1-7. [PubMed:9869358 ]
  9. Schmitt A, Gasic-Milenkovic J, Schmitt J: Characterization of advanced glycation end products: mass changes in correlation to side chain modifications. Anal Biochem. 2005 Nov 1;346(1):101-6. Epub 2005 Aug 15. [PubMed:16168380 ]
  10. Booth ED, Dofferhoff O, Boogaard PJ, Watson WP: Comparison of the metabolism of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid in vitro by precision-cut tissue slices from female rat, rabbit and human liver. Xenobiotica. 2004 Jan;34(1):31-48. [PubMed:14742135 ]
  11. Tainio H, Vaalasti A, Rechardt L: The distribution of sympathetic adrenergic, tyrosine hydroxylase- and neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive nerves in human axillary sweat glands. Histochemistry. 1986;85(2):117-20. [PubMed:2875046 ]
  12. Davis WL, Goodman DB: Evidence for the glyoxylate cycle in human liver. Anat Rec. 1992 Dec;234(4):461-8. [PubMed:1456449 ]
  13. Arvesen A, Maehlen J, Rosen L, Aas P: Early and late functional and histopathological perturbations in the rabbit ear-artery following local cold injury. Vasa. 1999 May;28(2):85-94. [PubMed:10409918 ]
  14. Popov VN, Moskalev EA, Shevchenko MIu, Eprintsev AT: [Comparative analysis of the glyoxylate cycle clue enzyme isocitrate lyases from organisms of different systemic groups]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2005 Nov-Dec;41(6):507-13. [PubMed:16396466 ]


General function:
Involved in D-amino-acid oxidase activity
Specific function:
Regulates the level of the neuromodulator D-serine in the brain. Has high activity towards D-DOPA and contributes to dopamine synthesis. Could act as a detoxifying agent which removes D-amino acids accumulated during aging. Acts on a variety of D-amino acids with a preference for those having small hydrophobic side chains followed by those bearing polar, aromatic, and basic groups. Does not act on acidic amino acids.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Glycine + Water + Oxygen → Glyoxylic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 sequential steps in C-terminal alpha-amidation of peptides. The monooxygenase part produces an unstable peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) intermediate that is dismutated to glyoxylate and the corresponding desglycine peptide amide by the lyase part. C-terminal amidation of peptides such as neuropeptides is essential for full biological activity.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Peptidylamidoglycolate → peptidyl amide + Glyoxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Enzyme with hydroxy-pyruvate reductase, glyoxylate reductase and D-glycerate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities. Reduces hydroxypyruvate to D-glycerate, glyoxylate to glycolate oxidizes D-glycerate to hydroxypyruvate.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Glycolic acid + NADP → Glyoxylic acid + NADPHdetails
Glycolic acid + NADP → Glyoxylic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Can metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via transamination to alpha-keto-delta-(NN-dimethylguanidino) valeric acid (DMGV). ADMA is a potent inhibitor of nitric-oxide (NO) synthase, and this activity provides mechanism through which the kidney regulates blood pressure.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
L-Alanine + Glyoxylic acid → Pyruvic acid + Glycinedetails
Glycine + Oxoglutaric acid → Glyoxylic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in FMN binding
Specific function:
Has 2-hydroxyacid oxidase activity. Most active on the 2-carbon substrate glycolate, but is also active on 2-hydroxy fatty acids, with high activity towards 2-hydroxy palmitate and 2-hydroxy octanoate.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Glycolic acid + Oxygen → Glyoxylic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in FMN binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of L-alpha-hydroxy acids as well as, more slowly, that of L-alpha-amino acids.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Glycolic acid + Oxygen → Glyoxylic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
L-Alanine + Glyoxylic acid → Pyruvic acid + Glycinedetails
Glycine + Oxoglutaric acid → Glyoxylic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
L-Serine + Glyoxylic acid → Hydroxypyruvic acid + Glycinedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). May catalyze the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)cysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond (By similarity). Has transaminase activity towards L-kynurenine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, serine, cysteine, methionine, histidine, glutamine and asparagine with glyoxylate as an amino group acceptor (in vitro). Has lower activity with 2-oxoglutarate as amino group acceptor (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
L-Kynurenine + Glyoxylic acid → 4-(2-Aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + Glycinedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Catalyzes the final step in the metabolic pathway of hydroxyproline (Probable).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutaric acid → Pyruvic acid + Glyoxylic aciddetails


General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Manning Fox JE, Meredith D, Halestrap AP: Characterisation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 substantiates its role in lactic acid efflux from skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2000 Dec 1;529 Pt 2:285-93. [PubMed:11101640 ]