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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-11-09 23:15:46 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0006479
  • HMDB0015410
  • HMDB01514
  • HMDB06479
  • HMDB15410
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlucosamine
DescriptionIn the United States, glucosamine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for medical use in humans. Since glucosamine is classified as a dietary supplement, evidence of safety and efficacy is not required as long as it is not advertised as a treatment for a medical condition. Nevertheless, glucosamine is a popular alternative medicine used by consumers for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Glucosamine is also extensively used in veterinary medicine as an unregulated but widely accepted supplement (Nolen RS, 2002). Treatment with oral glucosamine is commonly used for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Since glucosamine is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans are a major component of joint cartilage, supplemental glucosamine may help to rebuild cartilage and treat arthritis. However, there is little evidence that any clinical effect of glucosamine works this way (Laverty et al., 2005; Biggee et al., 2005). Its use as a therapy for osteoarthritis appears safe but there is conflicting evidence as to its effectiveness. Glucosamine (C6H14NO5) is an amino sugar that is an important precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids.
Fides ecopharma brand OF glucosamine sulfateHMDB
Rottapharm brand OF glucosamine sulfateHMDB
2 Amino 2 deoxyglucoseHMDB
Glucosamine sulfateHMDB
Sulfate, glucosamineHMDB
Opfermann brand OF glucosamine sulfateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H13NO5
Average Molecular Weight179.1711
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight179.079372531
IUPAC Name(3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-amino-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,4,5-triol
Traditional Nameglucosamine
CAS Registry Number3416-24-8
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Amino saccharide
  • Oxane
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point88 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility330 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility551 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.73ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.23ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area116.17 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity37.58 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.87 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-06tr-9300000000-7e2a89f48724cdda814cSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0ul9-9847700000-b4779809586433e7ec78Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-4900000000-364d52fc6e7e423f52bbSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-762e016c89a40a9e3f49Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-bd04d561d78f2abad229Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0900000000-4c88765919efa0ec2d2dSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03ea-6900000000-301590fbe90692448d5eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052g-9100000000-d6a51790ce1df14a067aSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-002r-9400000000-e43a7a5cb44f6c461544Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-053r-9800000000-56b95ef43b164db5524dSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9000000000-1434c5ce1e9649c1cbf1Spectrum
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Cartilage
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Platelet
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.29 (0.0-0.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.02 +/- 4.13 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
UrineDetected and Quantified1.45 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01296
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022668
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID388352
KEGG Compound IDC00329
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID34633
Wikipedia LinkGlucosamine
PubChem Compound439213
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID47977
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferenceLi, Nan; Li, Jiheng. Preparation of D-glucosamine hydrochloride. Zhongguo Yaoke Daxue Xuebao (1997), 28(1), 56-58.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Thatte HS, Zagarins S, Khuri SF, Fischer TH: Mechanisms of poly-N-acetyl glucosamine polymer-mediated hemostasis: platelet interactions. J Trauma. 2004 Jul;57(1 Suppl):S13-21. [PubMed:15280745 ]
  2. Ruoslahti E, Engvall E, Hayman EG, Spiro RG: Comparative studies on amniotic fluid and plasma fibronectins. Biochem J. 1981 Jan 1;193(1):295-9. [PubMed:7305927 ]
  3. Rhodes M, Allen A, Dowling RH, Murphy G, Lennard TW: Inhibition of human gall bladder mucus synthesis in patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Gut. 1992 Aug;33(8):1113-7. [PubMed:1398238 ]
  4. Cibere J, Thorne A, Kopec JA, Singer J, Canvin J, Robinson DB, Pope J, Hong P, Grant E, Lobanok T, Ionescu M, Poole AR, Esdaile JM: Glucosamine sulfate and cartilage type II collagen degradation in patients with knee osteoarthritis: randomized discontinuation trial results employing biomarkers. J Rheumatol. 2005 May;32(5):896-902. [PubMed:15868627 ]
  5. Morita H, Kettlewell MG, Jewell DP, Kent PW: Glycosylation and sulphation of colonic mucus glycoproteins in patients with ulcerative colitis and in healthy subjects. Gut. 1993 Jul;34(7):926-32. [PubMed:8344580 ]
  6. Zhang LJ, Huang TM, Fang XL, Li XN, Wang QS, Zhang ZW, Sha XY: Determination of glucosamine sulfate in human plasma by precolumn derivatization using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: its application to a bioequivalence study. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006 Sep 14;842(1):8-12. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [PubMed:16740419 ]
  7. Hoffer LJ, Kaplan LN, Hamadeh MJ, Grigoriu AC, Baron M: Sulfate could mediate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine sulfate. Metabolism. 2001 Jul;50(7):767-70. [PubMed:11436179 ]
  8. Huang TM, Cai L, Yang B, Zhou MX, Shen YF, Duan GL: Liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method for the assay of glucosamine sulfate in human plasma: validation and application to a pharmacokinetic study. Biomed Chromatogr. 2006 Mar;20(3):251-6. [PubMed:16145658 ]
  9. Biggee BA, Blinn CM, McAlindon TE, Nuite M, Silbert JE: Low levels of human serum glucosamine after ingestion of glucosamine sulphate relative to capability for peripheral effectiveness. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006 Feb;65(2):222-6. Epub 2005 Aug 3. [PubMed:16079170 ]
  10. McCarty MF: Enhanced synovial production of hyaluronic acid may explain rapid clinical response to high-dose glucosamine in osteoarthritis. Med Hypotheses. 1998 Jun;50(6):507-10. [PubMed:9710325 ]
  11. Uitterlinden EJ, Jahr H, Koevoet JL, Jenniskens YM, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Degroot J, Verhaar JA, Weinans H, van Osch GJ: Glucosamine decreases expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human osteoarthritic cartilage explants. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006 Mar;14(3):250-7. Epub 2005 Nov 18. [PubMed:16300972 ]
  12. Cope GF, Heatley RV, Kelleher J, Axon AT: In vitro mucus glycoprotein production by colonic tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis. Gut. 1988 Feb;29(2):229-34. [PubMed:3345934 ]
  13. McCarty MF: Glucosamine may retard atherogenesis by promoting endothelial production of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Med Hypotheses. 1997 Mar;48(3):245-51. [PubMed:9140889 ]
  14. Cheung HS, Nicoloff JT, Kamiel MB, Spolter L, Nimni ME: Stimulation of fibroblast biosynthetic activity by serum of patients with pretibial myxedema. J Invest Dermatol. 1978 Jul;71(1):12-7. [PubMed:355562 ]
  15. Valeri CR, Srey R, Tilahun D, Ragno G: In vitro effects of poly-N-acetyl glucosamine on the activation of platelets in platelet-rich plasma with and without red blood cells. J Trauma. 2004 Jul;57(1 Suppl):S22-5; discussion S25. [PubMed:15280746 ]
  16. Roseman S: Reflections on glycobiology. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 9;276(45):41527-42. Epub 2001 Sep 11. [PubMed:11553646 ]
  17. GHOSH S, BLUMENTHAL HJ, DAVIDSON E, ROSEMAN S: Glucosamine metabolism. V. Enzymatic synthesis of glucosamine 6-phosphate. J Biol Chem. 1960 May;235:1265-73. [PubMed:13827775 ]
  18. Laverty S, Sandy JD, Celeste C, Vachon P, Marier JF, Plaas AH: Synovial fluid levels and serum pharmacokinetics in a large animal model following treatment with oral glucosamine at clinically relevant doses. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jan;52(1):181-91. [PubMed:15641100 ]
  19. Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, Shea B, Houpt J, Robinson V, Hochberg MC, Wells G: Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD002946. [PubMed:15846645 ]
  20. Buse MG: Hexosamines, insulin resistance, and the complications of diabetes: current status. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jan;290(1):E1-E8. [PubMed:16339923 ]


General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when glucose is abundant. The role of GCK is to provide G6P for the synthesis of glycogen. Pancreatic glucokinase plays an important role in modulating insulin secretion. Hepatic glucokinase helps to facilitate the uptake and conversion of glucose by acting as an insulin-sensitive determinant of hepatic glucose usage.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Adenosine triphosphate + Glucosamine → ADP + Glucosamine 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Adenosine triphosphate + Glucosamine → ADP + Glucosamine 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Adenosine triphosphate + Glucosamine → ADP + Glucosamine 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
N-Sulfo-D-glucosamine + Water → Glucosamine + Oat gumdetails
General function:
Involved in tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific function:
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in chitinase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the degradation of asparagine-linked glycoproteins. Hydrolyze of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine (1-4)N- acetylglucosamine chitobiose core from the reducing end of the bond, it requires prior cleavage by glycosylasparaginase
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Specifically deglycosylates the denatured form of N- linked glycoproteins in the cytoplasm and assists their proteasome-mediated degradation. Cleaves the beta-aspartyl- glucosamine (GlcNAc) of the glycan and the amide side chain of Asn, converting Asn to Asp. Prefers proteins containing high- mannose over those bearing complex type oligosaccharides. Can recognize misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulun that are exported in the cytosol to be destroyed and deglycosylate them, while it has no activity toward native proteins. Deglycosylation is prerequisite for subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation of some, but not all, misfolded glycoproteins
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Adenosine triphosphate + Glucosamine → ADP + Glucosamine 6-phosphatedetails