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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:15:54 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014440
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14440
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMorphine
DescriptionMorphine is the principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. In 2017, morphine was the 155th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than four million prescriptions. Morphine is used primarily to treat both acute and chronic severe pain. Its duration of analgesia is about three to seven hours. A large overdose of morphine can cause asphyxia and death by respiratory depression if the person does not receive medical attention immediately. Morphine is naturally produced by several plants (such as the opium poppy) and animals (PMID: 22578954 ). Morphine was first isolated between 1803 and 1805 by Friedrich Sertürner. Sertürner originally named the substance morphium after the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus, as it has a tendency to cause sleep. The primary source of morphine is isolation from poppy straw of the opium poppy. Morphine is also endogenously produced by humans. In the mid 2000s it was found morphine can be synthesized by white blood cells (PMID 22578954 ). CYP2D6, a cytochrome P450 isoenzyme, catalyzes the biosynthesis of morphine from codeine and dopamine from tyramine. The morphine biosynthetic pathway in humans occurs as follows: L-tyrosine -> para-tyramine or L-DOPA -> dopamine -> (S)-norlaudanosoline -> (S)-reticuline -> 1,2-dehydroretinulinium -> (R)-reticuline -> salutaridine -> salutaridinol -> thebaine -> neopinone -> codeinone -> codeine -> morphine. (S)-Norlaudanosoline (also known as tetrahydropapaveroline) which is an important intermediate in the WBC biosynthesis of morphine can also be synthesized from 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), a metabolite of L-DOPA and dopamine. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle (PMID: 4582903 ). The precise mechanism of the analgesic action of morphine is not fully known. However, specific CNS opiate receptors have been identified and likely play a role in the induction of analgesic effects. Morphine first acts on the mu-opioid receptors. The mechanism of respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to increases in carbon dioxide tension and electrical stimulation. It has been shown that morphine binds to and inhibits GABA inhibitory interneurons. These interneurons normally inhibit the descending pain inhibition pathway. So, without the inhibitory signals, pain modulation can proceed downstream. When the dose of morphine is reduced after long-term use, opioid withdrawal symptoms such as drowsiness, vomiting, and constipation may also occur (PMID: 23244430 ). Morphine is only found in easily detectable quantities in individuals that have used or taken this drug.
Structure
Data?1582753179
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-MorphineChEBI
(5alpha,6alpha)-17-Methyl-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxymorphinan-3,6-diolChEBI
(5alpha,6alpha)-Didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diolChEBI
(5R,6S,9R,13S,14R)-4,5-Epoxy-N-methyl-7-morphinen-3,6-diolChEBI
(7R,7AS,12BS)-3-methyl-2,3,4,4a,7,7a-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methano[1]benzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinoline-7,9-diolChEBI
MorfinaChEBI
MorphiaChEBI
MorphinChEBI
MorphinumChEBI
MorphiumChEBI
Morfina dosaKegg
SubstitolKegg
(5a,6a)-17-Methyl-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxymorphinan-3,6-diolGenerator
(5Α,6α)-17-methyl-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxymorphinan-3,6-diolGenerator
(5a,6a)-Didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diolGenerator
(5Α,6α)-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diolGenerator
D-(-)-MorphineHMDB
MorphinaHMDB
Morphine sulfateHMDB
Contin, MSHMDB
Morphine chlorideHMDB
Morphine sulfate (2:1), anhydrousHMDB
Oramorph SRHMDB
Sulfate, morphineHMDB
Chloride, morphineHMDB
MS ContinHMDB
DuramorphHMDB
Morphine sulfate (2:1), pentahydrateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC17H19NO3
Average Molecular Weight285.3377
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight285.136493479
IUPAC Name(1S,5R,13R,14S,17R)-4-methyl-12-oxa-4-azapentacyclo[9.6.1.0¹,¹³.0⁵,¹⁷.0⁷,¹⁸]octadeca-7(18),8,10,15-tetraene-10,14-diol
Traditional Namemorph
CAS Registry Number57-27-2
SMILES
[H][C@@]12OC3=C(O)C=CC4=C3[C@@]11CCN(C)[C@]([H])(C4)[C@]1([H])C=C[C@@H]2O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C17H19NO3/c1-18-7-6-17-10-3-5-13(20)16(17)21-15-12(19)4-2-9(14(15)17)8-11(10)18/h2-5,10-11,13,16,19-20H,6-8H2,1H3/t10-,11+,13-,16-,17-/m0/s1
InChI KeyBQJCRHHNABKAKU-KBQPJGBKSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as morphinans. These are polycyclic compounds with a four-ring skeleton with three condensed six-member rings forming a partially hydrogenated phenanthrene moiety, one of which is aromatic while the two others are alicyclic.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassMorphinans
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentMorphinans
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Morphinan
  • Phenanthrene
  • Tetralin
  • Coumaran
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Piperidine
  • Benzenoid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Tertiary amine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Ether
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect
Disposition
Biological locationRoute of exposureSource
Process
Role
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point255 °C (sulfate salt)Not Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility10.2 g/LNot Available
LogP0.8Not Available
Experimental Chromatographic Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

Adduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
[M+H]+CBM164.030932474
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility10.2 g/LALOGPS
logP0.99ALOGPS
logP0.9ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.26ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.12ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.93 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity80.12 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.95 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+163.74531661259
DarkChem[M-H]-160.73831661259
DeepCCS[M-2H]-205.36430932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+181.08330932474
AllCCS[M+H]+169.132859911
AllCCS[M+H-H2O]+165.732859911
AllCCS[M+NH4]+172.332859911
AllCCS[M+Na]+173.232859911
AllCCS[M-H]-173.632859911
AllCCS[M+Na-2H]-172.932859911
AllCCS[M+HCOO]-172.432859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Morphine[H][C@@]12OC3=C(O)C=CC4=C3[C@@]11CCN(C)[C@]([H])(C4)[C@]1([H])C=C[C@@H]2O3778.3Standard polar33892256
Morphine[H][C@@]12OC3=C(O)C=CC4=C3[C@@]11CCN(C)[C@]([H])(C4)[C@]1([H])C=C[C@@H]2O2315.9Standard non polar33892256
Morphine[H][C@@]12OC3=C(O)C=CC4=C3[C@@]11CCN(C)[C@]([H])(C4)[C@]1([H])C=C[C@@H]2O2456.3Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Morphine,1TMS,isomer #1CN1CC[C@]23C4=C5C=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C4O[C@H]2[C@@H](O)C=C[C@H]3[C@H]1C52473.9Semi standard non polar33892256
Morphine,1TMS,isomer #2CN1CC[C@]23C4=C5C=CC(O)=C4O[C@H]2[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C[C@H]3[C@H]1C52450.8Semi standard non polar33892256
Morphine,2TMS,isomer #1CN1CC[C@]23C4=C5C=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C4O[C@H]2[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C[C@H]3[C@H]1C52490.4Semi standard non polar33892256
Morphine,1TBDMS,isomer #1CN1CC[C@]23C4=C5C=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C4O[C@H]2[C@@H](O)C=C[C@H]3[C@H]1C52744.1Semi standard non polar33892256
Morphine,1TBDMS,isomer #2CN1CC[C@]23C4=C5C=CC(O)=C4O[C@H]2[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C[C@H]3[C@H]1C52729.0Semi standard non polar33892256
Morphine,2TBDMS,isomer #1CN1CC[C@]23C4=C5C=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C4O[C@H]2[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C[C@H]3[C@H]1C52974.9Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Morphine EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00li-8970000000-28acaf307ce4bc5aabf12017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Morphine CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0090000000-b9cf42b077ae0fa5b50d2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Morphine EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00li-8970000000-28acaf307ce4bc5aabf12018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Morphine CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0090000000-b9cf42b077ae0fa5b50d2018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Morphine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00vl-1090000000-adcd23ce75ad17f72cc52017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Morphine GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03mi-7209800000-b1a234139ee9e72f34022017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Morphine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-QTOF , positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0090000000-98125212ed8e73f219e12017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-QTOF , positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0090000000-e9f7be236d827a716c1b2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-QTOF , positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0290000000-5066e10cd96a2c3766762017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-QTOF , positive-QTOFsplash10-0kui-0930000000-793deeb91de6d2459cbe2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-QTOF , positive-QTOFsplash10-100r-0900000000-f775c77035946f746daa2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0ufr-0390000000-660ff44516f98e3460162017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0090000000-22857c8ef81e65ad6bd32017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0090000000-c5194c99a9e7f30ea0c82017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0090000000-1980ff8ab9e654f16fe12017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0690000000-efa51d970eaf96d3b9822017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0pc9-0920000000-64a693f2f51c03129c942017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-100r-0900000000-49174c3db4b1c18470802017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0090000000-3cc8784093ef460d30302017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0090000000-4bc885836f18b77696f32017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0090000000-4a16648c3e86669f24462017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0690000000-f41b2f804790e9ad8f1d2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0pc9-0920000000-69393fc6563baf39d91f2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-100r-0900000000-467f39309be5edfa4c012017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0ufr-0390000000-bd9670761ff2a7dafc552017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0090000000-46d12300d5a1a45af2782016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0090000000-9470e4073083d671574a2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0pdj-3290000000-3c229ae6f1433ae20d852016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-0090000000-0d38f6180c7ffdd17c4e2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-0090000000-e3fd836bcbf266246e222016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Morphine 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-02di-0390000000-317675bcd07b96b059352016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00295 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00295 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00295
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB031008
KNApSAcK IDC00001889
Chemspider ID4450907
KEGG Compound IDC01516
BioCyc IDMORPHINE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMorphine
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5288826
PDB IDMOI
ChEBI ID17303
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Loguinov AV, Anderson LM, Crosby GJ, Yukhananov RY: Gene expression following acute morphine administration. Physiol Genomics. 2001 Aug 28;6(3):169-81. [PubMed:11526201 ]
  2. Kilpatrick GJ, Smith TW: Morphine-6-glucuronide: actions and mechanisms. Med Res Rev. 2005 Sep;25(5):521-44. [PubMed:15952175 ]
  3. Stefano GB, Ptacek R, Kuzelova H, Kream RM: Endogenous morphine: up-to-date review 2011. Folia Biol (Praha). 2012;58(2):49-56. [PubMed:22578954 ]
  4. Jacquet YF, Lajtha A: Morphine action at central nervous system sites in rat: analgesia or hyperalgesia depending on site and dose. Science. 1973 Nov 2;182(4111):490-2. doi: 10.1126/science.182.4111.490. [PubMed:4582903 ]
  5. Rehni AK, Jaggi AS, Singh N: Opioid withdrawal syndrome: emerging concepts and novel therapeutic targets. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):112-25. doi: 10.2174/1871527311312010017. [PubMed:23244430 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 25 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme has glucuronidating capacity with steroid substrates such as 5-beta-androstane 3-alpha,17-beta-diol, estradiol, ADT, eugenol and bile acids. Only isoform 1 seems to be active.
Gene Name:
UGT2B28
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY64
Molecular weight:
38742.9
Reactions
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-3-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-6-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
Reactions
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-3-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-6-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
References
  1. Abildskov K, Weldy P, Garland M: Molecular cloning of the baboon UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B gene family and their activity in conjugating morphine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Apr;38(4):545-53. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.030635. Epub 2010 Jan 13. [PubMed:20071451 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
Reactions
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-3-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-6-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT2B10
Uniprot ID:
P36537
Molecular weight:
60773.485
Reactions
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-3-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-6-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
Reactions
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-3-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-6-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
References
  1. Coffman BL, Rios GR, King CD, Tephly TR: Human UGT2B7 catalyzes morphine glucuronidation. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Jan;25(1):1-4. [PubMed:9010622 ]
  2. Takeda S, Ishii Y, Iwanaga M, Mackenzie PI, Nagata K, Yamazoe Y, Oguri K, Yamada H: Modulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase function by cytochrome P450: evidence for the alteration of UGT2B7-catalyzed glucuronidation of morphine by CYP3A4. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;67(3):665-72. Epub 2004 Dec 20. [PubMed:15611481 ]
  3. Yamada H, Ishii K, Ishii Y, Ieiri I, Nishio S, Morioka T, Oguri K: Formation of highly analgesic morphine-6-glucuronide following physiologic concentration of morphine in human brain. J Toxicol Sci. 2003 Dec;28(5):395-401. [PubMed:14746343 ]
  4. Abildskov K, Weldy P, Garland M: Molecular cloning of the baboon UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B gene family and their activity in conjugating morphine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Apr;38(4):545-53. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.030635. Epub 2010 Jan 13. [PubMed:20071451 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xenobiotic substrates, including simple phenolic compounds, 7-hydroxylated coumarins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and certain drugs and their hydroxylated metabolites. It also catalyzes the glucuronidation of endogenous estrogens and androgens.
Gene Name:
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID:
P54855
Molecular weight:
61035.815
Reactions
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-3-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-6-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
References
  1. Abildskov K, Weldy P, Garland M: Molecular cloning of the baboon UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B gene family and their activity in conjugating morphine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Apr;38(4):545-53. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.030635. Epub 2010 Jan 13. [PubMed:20071451 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Active on odorants and seems to be involved in olfaction; it could help clear lipophilic odorant molecules from the sensory epithelium.
Gene Name:
UGT2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4X1
Molecular weight:
60771.605
Reactions
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-3-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-6-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-3-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-6-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
References
  1. Ohno S, Kawana K, Nakajin S: Contribution of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 and 1A8 to morphine-6-glucuronidation and its kinetic properties. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Apr;36(4):688-94. doi: 10.1124/dmd.107.019281. Epub 2008 Jan 10. [PubMed:18187562 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
Reactions
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-3-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-6-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW9
Molecular weight:
59741.035
Reactions
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-3-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
Morphine + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Morphine-6-glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
References
  1. Ohno S, Kawana K, Nakajin S: Contribution of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 and 1A8 to morphine-6-glucuronidation and its kinetic properties. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Apr;36(4):688-94. doi: 10.1124/dmd.107.019281. Epub 2008 Jan 10. [PubMed:18187562 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389 ]
  2. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 25 proteins in total.