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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:41:47 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015534
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15534
Metabolite Identification
Common NameNitrazepam
DescriptionNitrazepam is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a benzodiazepine derivative used as an anticonvulsant and hypnotic.Nitrazepam belongs to a group of medicines called benzodiazepines. It acts on benzodiazepine receptors in the brain which are associated with the GABA receptors causing an enhanced binding of GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) to GABAA receptors. GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, involved in inducing sleepiness, muscular relaxation and control of anxiety and fits, and slows down the central nervous system. The anticonvulsant properties of nitrazepam and other benzodiazepines may be in part or entirely due to binding to voltage-dependent sodium channels rather than benzodiazepine receptors. Sustained repetitive firing seems to be limited by benzodiazepines effect of slowing recovery of sodium channels from inactivation.
Structure
Data?1582753307
Synonyms
ValueSource
1,3-Dihydro-7-nitro-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-oneChEBI
2,3-Dihydro-7-nitro-5-phenyl-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-oneChEBI
7-Nitro-1,3-dihydro-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-oneChEBI
7-Nitro-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-oneChEBI
ApodormChEBI
AtempolChEBI
BenzalinChEBI
CalsminChEBI
DormicumChEBI
EatanChEBI
EunoctinChEBI
GersonChEBI
HipnaxChEBI
HipsalChEBI
IbrovekChEBI
ImesonChEBI
ImesontChEBI
MogadonChEBI
N-DesmethylnimetazepamChEBI
NelbonChEBI
NelmatChEBI
NeozepamChEBI
NeuchlonicChEBI
NitradosChEBI
NitrazepamumChEBI
PaxisynChEBI
PelsonChEBI
PersopitChEBI
RadedormChEBI
RelactChEBI
RemnosChEBI
Ro 4-5360ChEBI
Ro 5-3059ChEBI
SomitranChEBI
SonebonChEBI
SonnolinChEBI
SuremChEBI
TrazeninChEBI
UnisomniaChEBI
1, 3-Dihydro-7-nitro-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-oneHMDB
2,3-Dihydro-7-nitro-5-phenyl-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ONHMDB
7-Nitro-5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-oneHMDB
Alter brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
CSP Brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
DDSA brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
Desitin brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
Nitrazepam alHMDB
Nitrazepam-neuraxpharmHMDB
NitrodiazepamHMDB
NovanoxHMDB
Taurus brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
CT-Arzneimittel brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
Aliud brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
Alphapharma brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
Dormicum brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
NitrazadonHMDB
NitrazepHMDB
Norgine brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
Rhoxalpharma brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
Scheurich brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
SerenadeHMDB
Dermatech brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
ICN brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
ImadormHMDB
Pfleger brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
Rhoxal-nitrazepamHMDB
Wernigerode brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
Allphar brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
AlodormHMDB
Alpharma brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
DormalonHMDB
Dormo-purenHMDB
Protea brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
SomniteHMDB
United drug brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
Neuraxpharm brand OF nitrazepamHMDB
Rhoxal nitrazepamMeSH
Nitrazepam neuraxpharmMeSH
Chemical FormulaC15H11N3O3
Average Molecular Weight281.2661
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight281.080041233
IUPAC Name7-nitro-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
Traditional Namegerson
CAS Registry Number146-22-5
SMILES
[O-][N+](=O)C1=CC2=C(NC(=O)CN=C2C2=CC=CC=C2)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C15H11N3O3/c19-14-9-16-15(10-4-2-1-3-5-10)12-8-11(18(20)21)6-7-13(12)17-14/h1-8H,9H2,(H,17,19)
InChI KeyKJONHKAYOJNZEC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,4-benzodiazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a 1,4-azepine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzodiazepines
Sub Class1,4-benzodiazepines
Direct Parent1,4-benzodiazepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 1,4-benzodiazepine
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Nitroaromatic compound
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Carboxamide group
  • Ketimine
  • Lactam
  • C-nitro compound
  • Organic nitro compound
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Organic oxoazanium
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Imine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point225 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.03 g/LNot Available
LogP2.25HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.03 g/LALOGPS
logP1.95ALOGPS
logP2.55ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.66ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.65ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area84.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity78.21 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability27.67 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0il0-0190000000-e010be5805d1bd8c4980Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-8f7713c4e618326c1d9bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-d514d232dff7c473d32fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-e2a1a64f13da7ed85586Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0uk9-0190000000-f22bb948e3a20dfd2bffSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-006x-0980000000-f78bdd1a7e391dbaad48Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-014l-0920000000-d334a1a23130e08b3d55Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-014i-1900000000-3808670d5ccc91bd0e38Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0uxu-3900000000-1fc08ceb9c88d5c734caSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0udi-5900000000-cbcd46c7ea13a9ff18cbSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-00lr-0090000000-bc49e652f5e2e4f4b760Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-001i-0090000000-c63c1250878b61e6d0daSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-001i-0090000000-02d4e0b73c57e157d6b0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0019-0090000000-6623ad5dc09e01b5a573Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-000i-0390000000-38d5874ebcc0e05f411cSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-053r-0970000000-ce2d7caefc3860d70fa4Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-053r-0930000000-670ac85a651f0faf0d7dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0udi-1900000000-f96a507afa68e1b3a438Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0udi-2900000000-c9082e2a3a5a56cfe408Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0udi-3900000000-310a824d6452fa47d987Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0090000000-561625e5abacb4f46f7dSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-0090000000-4283a0fd03dc5d34141aSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-054k-9310000000-06affddb11ec02837252Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-fb59c905972aefb50fefSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-5f6a8e538799be95e46bSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-cf06cb39768b75fb66c0Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0zgi-2490000000-84b5bf7df62c745f8414Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01595 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01595 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01595
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4350
KEGG Compound IDC07487
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNitrazepam
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound4506
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID7581
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Nowakowska E, Chodera A: Studies on the involvement of opioid mechanism in the locomotor effects of benzodiazepines in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991 Feb;38(2):265-6. [PubMed:1676167 ]
  2. Oelschlager H: [Chemical and pharmacologic aspects of benzodiazepines]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1989 Jul 4;78(27-28):766-72. [PubMed:2570451 ]
  3. Rickels K: The clinical use of hypnotics: indications for use and the need for a variety of hypnotics. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1986;332:132-41. [PubMed:2883820 ]
  4. Robertson MD, Drummer OH: Postmortem drug metabolism by bacteria. J Forensic Sci. 1995 May;40(3):382-6. [PubMed:7782744 ]
  5. Podhorna J, Krsiak M: Behavioural effects of a benzodiazepine receptor partial agonist, Ro 19-8022, in the social conflict test in mice. Behav Pharmacol. 2000 Apr;11(2):143-51. [PubMed:10877119 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 22 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular weight:
54161.8
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular weight:
51801.4
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
  3. Podhorna J, Krsiak M: Behavioural effects of a benzodiazepine receptor partial agonist, Ro 19-8022, in the social conflict test in mice. Behav Pharmacol. 2000 Apr;11(2):143-51. [PubMed:10877119 ]
  4. Tanaka M, Suemaru K, Watanabe S, Cui R, Li B, Araki H: Comparison of short- and long-acting benzodiazepine-receptor agonists with different receptor selectivity on motor coordination and muscle relaxation following thiopental-induced anesthesia in mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Jul;107(3):277-84. Epub 2008 Jul 5. [PubMed:18603831 ]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular weight:
51325.9
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular weight:
55164.1
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular weight:
61622.6
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular weight:
52145.6
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular weight:
51023.7
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular weight:
54234.1
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular weight:
59149.9
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [PubMed:12438524 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 22 proteins in total.