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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:49:03 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000561
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00561
Metabolite Identification
Common Namebeta-Carotene
DescriptionBeta-Carotene belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carotenes. These are a type of polyunsaturated hydrocarbon molecules containing eight consecutive isoprene units. Carotenes are characterized by the presence of two end-groups (mostly cyclohexene rings, but also cyclopentene rings or acyclic groups) linked by a long branched alkyl chain. Beta-carotene is therefore considered to be an isoprenoid lipid molecule. Beta-carotene is a strongly coloured red-orange pigment abundant in fungi, plants, and fruits. It is synthesized biochemically from eight isoprene units and therefore has 40 carbons. Among the carotenes, beta-carotene is distinguished by having beta-rings at both ends of the molecule. Beta-Carotene is biosynthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. It is the most common form of carotene in plants. In nature, Beta-carotene is a precursor (inactive form) to vitamin A. Vitamin A is produed via the action of beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase on carotenes. In mammals, carotenoid absorption is restricted to the duodenum of the small intestine and dependent on a class B scavenger receptor (SR-B1) membrane protein, which is also responsible for the absorption of vitamin E. One molecule of beta-carotene can be cleaved by the intestinal enzyme Beta-Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase into two molecules of vitamin A. Beta-Carotene contributes to the orange color of many different fruits and vegetables. Vietnamese gac and crude palm oil are particularly rich sources, as are yellow and orange fruits, such as cantaloupe, mangoes, pumpkin, and papayas, and orange root vegetables such as carrots and sweet potatoes. Excess beta-carotene is predominantly stored in the fat tissues of the body. The most common side effect of excessive beta-carotene consumption is carotenodermia, a physically harmless condition that presents as a conspicuous orange skin tint arising from deposition of the carotenoid in the outermost layer of the epidermis.
Structure
Data?1582752140
Synonyms
ValueSource
1,1'-[(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E)-3,7,12,16-Tetramethyloctadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-nonaene-1,18-diyl]bis(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexene)ChEBI
all-trans-beta-CaroteneChEBI
beta-KarotinChEBI
all-trans-b-CaroteneGenerator
all-trans-Β-caroteneGenerator
b-KarotinGenerator
Β-karotinGenerator
b-CaroteneGenerator
Β-caroteneGenerator
(all-e)-1,1'-(3,7,12,16-Tetramethyl-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-octadecanonaene-1,18-diyl)bisHMDB
(all-e)-1,1'-(3,7,12,16-Tetramethyl-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-octadecanonaene-1,18-diyl)bis[2,6,6-trimethyl-cyclohexeneHMDB
all-e-b-CaroteneHMDB
all-epsilon-beta-CaroteneHMDB
BetacaroteneHMDB
BetaVitHMDB
CarotabenHMDB
Carotene base 80SHMDB
FOOD Orange 5HMDB
KPMKHMDB
LucaratinHMDB
LucarotinHMDB
LurotinHMDB
ProvateneHMDB
ProvatenolHMDB
Rovimix b-caroteneHMDB
SerlaboHMDB
SolateneHMDB
Hermal brand OF betacaroteneHMDB
Max-caroHMDB
Merck brand OF betacaroteneHMDB
Roche brand OF betacaroteneHMDB
BellaCarotinHMDB
Betacarotene roche brandHMDB
Betacarotene solgar brandHMDB
Marlyn brand OF betacaroteneHMDB
Betacarotene hermal brandHMDB
Max caroHMDB
Solgar brand OF betacaroteneHMDB
3m Brand OF betacaroteneHMDB
Betacarotene 3m brandHMDB
Betacarotene marlyn brandHMDB
Betacarotene merck brandHMDB
Carotene, betaHMDB
MaxCaroHMDB
VetoronHMDB
beta CaroteneHMDB
b CaroteneHMDB
Β caroteneHMDB
beta-CaroteneHMDB
Chemical FormulaC40H56
Average Molecular Weight536.888
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight536.438201803
IUPAC Name1,3,3-trimethyl-2-[(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E)-3,7,12,16-tetramethyl-18-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)octadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-nonaen-1-yl]cyclohex-1-ene
Traditional Nameβ-carotene
CAS Registry Number7235-40-7
SMILES
C\C(\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C)=C/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C40H56/c1-31(19-13-21-33(3)25-27-37-35(5)23-15-29-39(37,7)8)17-11-12-18-32(2)20-14-22-34(4)26-28-38-36(6)24-16-30-40(38,9)10/h11-14,17-22,25-28H,15-16,23-24,29-30H2,1-10H3/b12-11+,19-13+,20-14+,27-25+,28-26+,31-17+,32-18+,33-21+,34-22+
InChI KeyOENHQHLEOONYIE-JLTXGRSLSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carotenes. These are a type of unsaturated hydrocarbons containing eight consecutive isoprene units. They are characterized by the presence of two end-groups (mostly cyclohexene rings, but also cyclopentene rings or acyclic groups) linked by a long branched alkyl chain. Carotenes belonging form a subgroup of the carotenoids family.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassTetraterpenoids
Direct ParentCarotenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Carotene
  • Branched unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Cycloalkene
  • Cyclic olefin
  • Unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Olefin
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Process

Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point183 °CNot Available
Boiling Point654.00 to 657.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility0.6 mg/mLNot Available
LogP14.764 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00039 g/LALOGPS
logP9.72ALOGPS
logP11.12ChemAxon
logS-6.1ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity191.61 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability72.05 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+242.74831661259
DarkChem[M-H]-243.3831661259
AllCCS[M+H]+251.67332859911
AllCCS[M-H]-225.00832859911
DeepCCS[M+H]+258.9230932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-257.02530932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-290.26630932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+264.5330932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
beta-CaroteneC\C(\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C)=C/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C4726.2Standard polar33892256
beta-CaroteneC\C(\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C)=C/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C4495.9Standard non polar33892256
beta-CaroteneC\C(\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C)=C/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C4194.3Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-3211290000-f968c686d39ae0f0fc502017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-05mx-9810010000-9a261fb8602890c2481e2015-03-01Not AvailableView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-0016-2794670000-c5bc2a4dbcd0f12cbf7f2012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-0002-2687970000-782d048d873c21fc6b822012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-05ai-1009510000-585581456b10671692bd2012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene FAB-EBEB (JMS-HX/HX 110A, JEOL) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-05mx-2920010000-471219f3e66bafb29bee2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-0144900000-2fa7b609c7300ff8aba32017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0434190000-0f2f0f2c4af76e6c33222016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000b-0679100000-6f4450c8ade1963f92012016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000j-1789100000-6f2a7024e42303e7737a2016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0000090000-cdea7c2d939f0c68b9052016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0000090000-530c81799c9daabdc9bf2016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014i-0968170000-ec71ee19e546088e3b052016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000j-0277960000-5b1eef16ffbc2ccd4b1e2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0081-0449400000-e362d306c4b151321fb62021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0iki-0149200000-5b858e5700ff1d750a4e2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0001090000-b0a4df7c3417e82842d72021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000j-0135090000-fb91b96b3605a056f12f2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - beta-Carotene 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0apj-0229000000-23e454829ef21fbedf662021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Feces
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Epidermis
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Spleen
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.133 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.936 +/- 0.0300 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.420 +/- 0.330 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.450 +/- 0.250 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.460 +/- 0.220 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.480 +/- 0.250 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.304 +/- 0.340 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.400 +/- 0.210 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.510 +/- 0.340 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.196 +/- 0.230 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.330 +/- 0.230 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.510 +/- 0.380 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.520 +/- 0.480 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.82 +/- 0.58 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.393 +/- 0.530 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.59 +/- 0.53 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.653 +/- 0.355 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.75 +/- 0.64 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.391 +/- 0.215 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.685 +/- 0.404 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.440 +/- 0.251 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.560 +/- 0.440 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.410 +/- 0.340 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.460 +/- 0.304 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.580 +/- 0.480 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.640 +/- 0.440 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.26 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.21 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified340 +/- 190 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.421 +/- 0.253 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.260 +/- 0.120 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.230 +/- 0.120 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.213 +/- 0.190 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.31 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.33 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.19 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.748 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.391 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.844 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.943 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.071 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.56 (0.23-3.92) uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.414 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.501 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.528 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.83 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.84 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.85 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.89 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.198 +/- 0.150 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.292 +/- 0.218 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.370 +/- 0.290 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.400 +/- 0.340 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.410 +/- 0.270 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.420 +/- 0.340 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.430 +/- 0.360 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.440 +/- 0.471 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.450 +/- 0.290 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.451 +/- 0.292 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.490 +/- 0.380 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.530 +/- 0.350 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.540 +/- 0.340 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.620 +/- 0.590 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.728 +/- 0.358 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.164 +/- 0.120 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.333 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.374 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.44 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.536 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.54 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.71 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.72 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.302 +/- 0.184 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.373 +/- 0.319 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.397 +/- 0.384 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.406 +/- 0.345 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.471 +/- 0.309 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.542 +/- 0.270 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.580 +/- 0.370 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.581 +/- 0.311 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.600 +/- 0.500 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.821 +/- 0.725 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified574.980 +/- 375.125 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1061.674 +/- 689.157 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.307 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.33 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.36 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.434 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.48 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.62 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.209 +/- 0.184 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.240 +/- 0.152 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.244 +/- 0.207 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.251 +/- 0.212 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.257 +/- 0.235 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.283 +/- 0.143 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.357 +/- 0.285 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.449 +/- 0.230 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.460 +/- 0.290 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.470 +/- 0.330 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.484 +/- 0.407 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified350 +/- 150 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified459.500 +/- 290.191 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified580 +/- 300 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified596.0275 +/- 447.0206 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.590 +/- 0.440 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.03-2.70 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.42 (0.19-0.72) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.18 +/- 0.06 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.01 +/- 0.08 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.0 (0.32 - 1.83) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.23 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.28 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Breast MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.201 +/- 0.180 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Obese
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.249 +/- 0.250 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Overweight
details
BloodDetected and Quantified277000 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal, breast, or neuroendocrine cancer
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.390 +/- 0.260 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothType I diabetes details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.200 +/- 0.130 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedObese details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.330 +/- 0.190 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedOverweight details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.30 (0.15-0.45) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEndometrial cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Endometrial cancer
  1. Jeong NH, Song ES, Lee JM, Lee KB, Kim MK, Yun YM, Lee JK, Son SK, Lee JP, Kim JH, Hur SY, Kwon YI: Preoperative levels of plasma micronutrients are related to endometrial cancer risk. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(4):434-9. doi: 10.1080/00016340902767187. [PubMed:19235557 ]
Obesity
  1. Vioque J, Weinbrenner T, Asensio L, Castello A, Young IS, Fletcher A: Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and vitamin C are better correlated with dietary intake in normal weight than overweight and obese elderly subjects. Br J Nutr. 2007 May;97(5):977-86. [PubMed:17408529 ]
  2. Burrows TL, Warren JM, Colyvas K, Garg ML, Collins CE: Validation of overweight children's fruit and vegetable intake using plasma carotenoids. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Jan;17(1):162-8. doi: 10.1038/oby.2008.495. Epub 2008 Nov 6. [PubMed:18997681 ]
Diabetes mellitus type 1
  1. Granado-Lorencio F, Olmedilla-Alonso B, Blanco-Navarro I, Botella-Romero F, Simal-Anton A: Assessment of carotenoid status and the relation to glycaemic control in type I diabetics: a follow-up study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Aug;60(8):1000-8. Epub 2006 Feb 1. [PubMed:16452910 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB06755
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB014613
KNApSAcK IDC00000919
Chemspider ID4444129
KEGG Compound IDC02094
BioCyc IDCPD1F-129
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkBeta_Carotene
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5280489
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17579
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDCARO
MarkerDB IDMDB00029986
Good Scents IDrw1105911
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Rushin WG, Catignani GL, Schwartz SJ: Determination of beta-carotene and its cis isomers in serum. Clin Chem. 1990 Nov;36(11):1986-9. [PubMed:2242585 ]
  2. Vahlquist A, Lee JB, Michaelsson G, Rollman O: Vitamin A in human skin: II Concentrations of carotene, retinol and dehydroretinol in various components of normal skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1982 Aug;79(2):94-7. [PubMed:7097042 ]
  3. Bacic-Vrca V, Skreb F, Cepelak I, Mayer L, Kusic Z, Petres B: The effect of antioxidant supplementation on superoxide dismutase activity, Cu and Zn levels, and total antioxidant status in erythrocytes of patients with Graves' disease. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(4):383-8. [PubMed:15899653 ]
  4. Wu K, Erdman JW Jr, Schwartz SJ, Platz EA, Leitzmann M, Clinton SK, DeGroff V, Willett WC, Giovannucci E: Plasma and dietary carotenoids, and the risk of prostate cancer: a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Feb;13(2):260-9. [PubMed:14973107 ]
  5. Huang C, Tang YL, Chen CY, Chen ML, Chu CH, Hseu CT: The bioavailability of beta-carotene in stir- or deep-fried vegetables in men determined by measuring the serum response to a single ingestion. J Nutr. 2000 Mar;130(3):534-40. [PubMed:10702581 ]
  6. Gerber M: Qualitative methods to evaluate Mediterranean diet in adults. Public Health Nutr. 2006 Feb;9(1A):147-51. [PubMed:16512962 ]
  7. El-Sohemy A, Baylin A, Kabagambe E, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Campos H: Individual carotenoid concentrations in adipose tissue and plasma as biomarkers of dietary intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):172-9. [PubMed:12081831 ]
  8. Gollnick HP, Siebenwirth C: Beta-carotene plasma levels and content in oral mucosal epithelium is skin type associated. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002 Sep-Oct;15(5):360-6. [PubMed:12239432 ]
  9. Lee J, Jiang S, Levine N, Watson RR: Carotenoid supplementation reduces erythema in human skin after simulated solar radiation exposure. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 2000 Feb;223(2):170-4. [PubMed:10654620 ]
  10. Stahl W, Schwarz W, Sundquist AR, Sies H: cis-trans isomers of lycopene and beta-carotene in human serum and tissues. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992 Apr;294(1):173-7. [PubMed:1550343 ]
  11. Stahl W, Heinrich U, Jungmann H, Sies H, Tronnier H: Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Mar;71(3):795-8. [PubMed:10702175 ]
  12. Chanarat N, Chanarat P, Viratsethasin K, Suttajit M, Chiewsilp D: Biochemical and hematological manifestations of HIV/AIDS in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2001 Sep;32(3):500-3. [PubMed:11944706 ]
  13. Heinrich U, Gartner C, Wiebusch M, Eichler O, Sies H, Tronnier H, Stahl W: Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):98-101. [PubMed:12514275 ]
  14. Poor CL, Bierer TL, Merchen NR, Fahey GC Jr, Murphy MR, Erdman JW Jr: Evaluation of the preruminant calf as a model for the study of human carotenoid metabolism. J Nutr. 1992 Feb;122(2):262-8. [PubMed:1732467 ]
  15. Lakshman MR: Alpha and omega of carotenoid cleavage. J Nutr. 2004 Jan;134(1):241S-245S. [PubMed:14704327 ]
  16. Kirsh VA, Hayes RB, Mayne ST, Chatterjee N, Subar AF, Dixon LB, Albanes D, Andriole GL, Urban DA, Peters U: Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Feb 15;98(4):245-54. [PubMed:16478743 ]
  17. McArdle F, Rhodes LE, Parslew RA, Close GL, Jack CI, Friedmann PS, Jackson MJ: Effects of oral vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation on ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress in human skin. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;80(5):1270-5. [PubMed:15531675 ]
  18. Metnitz GH, Fischer M, Bartens C, Steltzer H, Lang T, Druml W: Impact of acute renal failure on antioxidant status in multiple organ failure. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2000 Mar;44(3):236-40. [PubMed:10714834 ]
  19. Zhou JF, Chen P, Yang JL, Zhu YG, Peng CH, Wu YL: Oxidative stress before and after operation in patients with chronic cholecystitis containing gallstone. Biomed Environ Sci. 2000 Dec;13(4):254-62. [PubMed:11351858 ]
  20. Dimenstein R, Trugo NM, Donangelo CM, Trugo LC, Anastacio AS: Effect of subadequate maternal vitamin-A status on placental transfer of retinol and beta-carotene to the human fetus. Biol Neonate. 1996;69(4):230-4. [PubMed:8724650 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Symmetrically cleaves beta-carotene into two molecules of retinal. The reaction proceeds in three stages, epoxidation of the 15,15'-double bond, hydration of the double bond leading to ring opening, and oxidative cleavage of the diol formed.
Gene Name:
BCMO1
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAY6
Molecular weight:
62636.69
Reactions
beta-Carotene + Oxygen → Retinaldetails
beta-Carotene + Oxygen + Reduced acceptor → beta-Carotene-15,15'-epoxide + Water + Acceptordetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Asymmetrically cleaves beta-carotene at the 9',10' double bond resulting in the formation of beta-apo-10'-carotenal and beta-ionone. Besides beta-carotene, lycopene is also oxidatively cleaved. The apocarotenals formed by this enzyme may be the precursors for the biosynthesis of retinoic acid or exert unknown physiological effects.
Gene Name:
BCO2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYV7
Molecular weight:
61509.65
Reactions
beta-Carotene + Oxygen → all-trans-10'-apo-beta-carotenal + beta-Iononedetails