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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-02-28 09:34:34 UTC
Update Date2022-09-22 18:34:54 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001882
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01882
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDihydroxyacetone
DescriptionDihydroxyacetone (also known as DHA) is a ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones, it acts as a sunscreening agent. Dihydroxyacetone is the simplest of all ketoses and, having no chiral centre, is the only one that has no optical activity. Dihydroxyacetone is a simple non-toxic sugar. It is often derived from plant sources such as sugar beets and sugar cane, by the fermentation of glycerin. Dihydroxyacetone is a white crystalline powder which is water soluble.
Structure
Data?1582752214
Synonyms
ValueSource
1,3-Dihydroxy-2-propanoneChEBI
1,3-DihydroxyacetoneChEBI
1,3-Dihydroxydimethyl ketoneChEBI
1,3-Dihydroxypropan-2-oneChEBI
1,3-DihydroxypropanoneChEBI
1,3-Propanediol-2-oneChEBI
alpha,Alpha'-dihydroxyacetoneChEBI
Bis(hydroxymethyl) ketoneChEBI
DHAChEBI
GlyceroneChEBI
ChromelinKegg
a,Alpha'-dihydroxyacetoneGenerator
Α,alpha'-dihydroxyacetoneGenerator
a,A'-dihydroxyacetoneHMDB
Aliphatic ketoneHMDB
Dihydroxy-acetoneHMDB
DihyxalHMDB
KetochrominHMDB
OtanHMDB
OxantinHMDB
OxatoneHMDB
ProtosolHMDB
SolealHMDB
TriuloseHMDB
ViticolorHMDB
1,3 Dihydroxy 2 propanoneHMDB
Summers brand OF dihydroxyacetoneHMDB
ICN brand OF dihydroxyacetoneHMDB
VitadyeHMDB
Chemical FormulaC3H6O3
Average Molecular Weight90.0779
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight90.031694058
IUPAC Name1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-one
Traditional Namedihydroxyacetone
CAS Registry Number96-26-4
SMILES
OCC(=O)CO
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H6O3/c4-1-3(6)2-5/h4-5H,1-2H2
InChI KeyRXKJFZQQPQGTFL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as monosaccharides. Monosaccharides are compounds containing one carbohydrate unit not glycosidically linked to another such unit, and no set of two or more glycosidically linked carbohydrate units. Monosaccharides have the general formula CnH2nOn.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentMonosaccharides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glycerone or derivatives
  • Monosaccharide
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Ketone
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point90 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility838 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-1.5ChemAxon
logS0.97ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.49ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity19.6 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.1 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+116.83931661259
DarkChem[M-H]-111.01431661259
AllCCS[M+H]+123.6832859911
AllCCS[M-H]-121.96632859911
DeepCCS[M+H]+127.56930932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-124.77130932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-161.06930932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+135.74630932474
AllCCS[M+H]+123.732859911
AllCCS[M+H-H2O]+119.332859911
AllCCS[M+NH4]+127.832859911
AllCCS[M+Na]+129.032859911
AllCCS[M-H]-122.032859911
AllCCS[M+Na-2H]-126.632859911
AllCCS[M+HCOO]-131.632859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
DihydroxyacetoneOCC(=O)CO1990.5Standard polar33892256
DihydroxyacetoneOCC(=O)CO835.5Standard non polar33892256
DihydroxyacetoneOCC(=O)CO893.7Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Dihydroxyacetone,1TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OCC(=O)CO1060.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,1TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC(=CO)CO1074.4Semi standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,2TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OCC(=O)CO[Si](C)(C)C1224.1Semi standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,2TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OCC(=CO)O[Si](C)(C)C1202.1Semi standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,2TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)OC=C(CO)O[Si](C)(C)C1204.8Semi standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC=C(CO[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1358.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC=C(CO[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1266.7Standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC=C(CO[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1242.0Standard polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OCC(=O)CO1305.8Semi standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=CO)CO1313.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OCC(=O)CO[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1628.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,2TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OCC(=CO)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1658.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,2TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC=C(CO)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1672.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC=C(CO[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1937.9Semi standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC=C(CO[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1880.2Standard non polar33892256
Dihydroxyacetone,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC=C(CO[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1672.6Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0w2j-1900000000-b3783d91181e1657545d2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone GC-MS (1 MEOX; 2 TMS)splash10-0wa0-5900000000-f95dddc55209203877e32014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0gvk-1900000000-bd875a5207eb70c5beb82017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0w2j-1900000000-b3783d91181e1657545d2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0wa0-5900000000-f95dddc55209203877e32017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0w2j-2900000000-f84cc49dd11822409add2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a59-9000000000-089abb74f439c9265bb62016-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00g0-9320000000-6bdc226e79d3bc473a662017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-7bb646a5cb5ca825e7b52015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-05fu-9000000000-ab60a50ef2013d7627512015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ef7c943cff3a9adfd1ed2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-0e836f7fe0512bb626622015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-059i-9000000000-d1a13699d0d0cbea36b52015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-57da9a85ff22593c3ab32015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00dl-9000000000-3deebe0c487d3443c8442021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-006x-9000000000-73f63f3caf2a9bf8b8992021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-195717f89ffa991dcb572021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-9000000000-55ab07d1079db56cca4c2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0ab9-9000000000-f9afe28f3ce4c2f913d52021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dihydroxyacetone 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4l-9000000000-8e71e2b93a16e2be3db12021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Epidermis
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.807 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified>0.65 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.07 (0.02-0.18) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.10 (0.05-0.16) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
  1. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Zeltner R, Schulze BD, Reinhold SW, Deutschmann M, Immervoll AK, Boger CA, Banas B, Eckardt KU, Oefner PJ: Detection of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of urine. Kidney Int. 2011 Jun;79(11):1244-53. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.30. Epub 2011 Mar 9. [PubMed:21389975 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 114500 (Colorectal cancer)
  • 601313 (Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease)
DrugBank IDDB01775
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB030826
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID650
KEGG Compound IDC00184
BioCyc IDDIHYDROXYACETONE
BiGG ID34170
Wikipedia LinkDihydroxyacetone
METLIN ID6368
PubChem Compound670
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16016
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDDHA
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceHochuli, Erich; Taylor, Keith E.; Dutler, Hans. Dihydroxyacetone reductase from Mucor javanicus. 2. Identification of the physiological substrate and reactivity towards related compounds. European Journal of Biochemistry (1977), 75(2), 433-9.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Bales JR, Higham DP, Howe I, Nicholson JK, Sadler PJ: Use of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for rapid multi-component analysis of urine. Clin Chem. 1984 Mar;30(3):426-32. [PubMed:6321058 ]
  2. Phillipou G, Seaborn CJ, Phillips PJ: Re-evaluation of the fructosamine reaction. Clin Chem. 1988 Aug;34(8):1561-4. [PubMed:3402055 ]
  3. Blake SM, Treble NJ: Popliteus tendon tenosynovitis. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Dec;39(12):e42; discussion e42. [PubMed:16306488 ]
  4. Forest SE, Grothaus JT, Ertel KD, Rader C, Plante J: Fluorescence spectral imaging of dihydroxyacetone on skin in vivo. Photochem Photobiol. 2003 May;77(5):524-30. [PubMed:12812295 ]
  5. Taylor CR, Kwangsukstith C, Wimberly J, Kollias N, Anderson RR: Turbo-PUVA: dihydroxyacetone-enhanced photochemotherapy for psoriasis: a pilot study. Arch Dermatol. 1999 May;135(5):540-4. [PubMed:10328194 ]
  6. Kerr HH, Pantely GA, Metcalfe J, Welch JE: Reduction of human blood O2 affinity using dihydroxyacetone, phosphate, and pyruvate. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1979 Sep;47(3):478-81. [PubMed:118143 ]
  7. GOLDMAN L, WITTGENSTEIN E, BLANEY D, GOLDMAN J, SAWYER F: Studies of some physical properties of the dihydroxyacetone color complex. J Invest Dermatol. 1961 Apr;36:233-4. [PubMed:13706567 ]
  8. WITTGENSTEIN E, BERRY HK: Staining of skin with dihydroxyacetone. Science. 1960 Sep 30;132(3431):894-5. [PubMed:13845496 ]
  9. WITTGENSTEIN E, GUEST GM: Biochemical effects of dihydroxyacetone. J Invest Dermatol. 1961 Nov;37:421-6. [PubMed:14007781 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALPP
Uniprot ID:
P05187
Molecular weight:
57953.31
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALPI
Uniprot ID:
P09923
Molecular weight:
56811.695
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
This isozyme may play a role in skeletal mineralization.
Gene Name:
ALPL
Uniprot ID:
P05186
Molecular weight:
57304.435
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALPPL2
Uniprot ID:
P10696
Molecular weight:
57376.515
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes both the phosphorylation of dihydroxyacetone and of glyceraldehyde, and the splitting of ribonucleoside diphosphate-X compounds among which FAD is the best substrate.
Gene Name:
DAK
Uniprot ID:
Q3LXA3
Molecular weight:
58946.49
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Dihydroxyacetone → ADP + Dihydroxyacetone phosphatedetails